Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-9119)</strong> is dedicated to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JPRI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all areas of pharmaceutical Science including pharmaceutical drugs, community pharmacy, hospital pharmacy, clinical pharmacy, compounding pharmacy, consultant pharmacy, internet pharmacy, veterinary pharmacy, nuclear pharmacy, military pharmacy, pharmacy informatics, pharmaceutics, medicinal chemistry, pharmacognosy, pharmacotherapy, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical pharmacology, neuropharmacology, psychopharmacology, pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics, pharmacoepidemiology, toxicology, theoretical pharmacology, posology, pharmacognosy, behavioral pharmacology, environmental pharmacology, medicine development and safety testing, drug legislation and safety, pharmaceutical microbiology, pharmaceutical molecular biology, pharmaceutical biotechnology.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US contact@journaljpri.com (Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International) contact@journaljpri.com (Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International) Fri, 31 Jul 2020 14:07:07 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Analytical Pattern in Dermatoglyphics https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30576 <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The aim was to study the analytical pattern in dermatoglyphics.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The study was conducted in Skin Opd, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 100 participants with different hand dermatitis pattern were included in the study. All patients were subjected to: 1. Complete history, 2. Dermatological examination, 3. Finger print pattern of all the patients, 4. Informed consent.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> This hospital-based study involved 100 patients with Psoriasis (47) Eczema (23) Dermatophytosis (12), Syphilis (3), Drug reaction (5) Palmar keratoderma. (10), the most common being psoriasis and eczema. In psoriasis patients, whorl pattern was the commonest (48.29%), followed by 31.43% loop, 21.43% arch and 2.86% composite pattern. In eczema patients, loop and whorl pattern was found in (44.74%) followed by 34.23% loop, 22.43% arch and 1.86% composite pattern.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The palmar pattern intensities were increased in both sexes, while the digital pattern intensities were increased in males and decreased in females. TFRC was increased in males and decreased in female patients. In both cases and controls, TFRC was more in males than females. A-b count showed a significant reduction in both sexes.</p> S. R. Sruthy, Jayakar Thomas ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30576 Fri, 31 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Saudi Public Awareness Regarding Colon Cancer https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30578 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Colorectal cancer is the third most common malignancy in the world and in Saudi Arabia it is the second most common cancer ranking first among men and third among women. In Saudi Arabia there are no screening programs on a national level that conduct organized screening of colon cancer. Moreover, the knowledge about colon cancer is poor.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge and awareness of Saudi population about colon cancer.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The study consisted of a survey that was developed using a survey of previous study and after validation it was converted to online form and was distributed to be filled by the public.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Public awareness regarding colon cancer is suboptimal, improving colon cancer awareness with educational interventions is needed specially for vulnerable people.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Serious active measures should be taken&nbsp;to fill the gap in awareness of this disease for the public and health care workers.</p> Nehad Jaser Ahmed, Meshari Alrashidi ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30578 Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 To Study Dermoscopic Findings in Alopecia Areata https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30579 <p><strong>Introduction</strong><strong>:</strong> Alopecia areata is a common chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease that involves hair follicles, characterized by hair loss on the scalp and/or body without scarring. Clinically, the disease presents as smooth, patchy hair loss with various patterns - diffuse or reticulate alopecia, ophiasis, ophiasis inversus, alopecia totalis (loss of hair all the scalp), or alopecia universalis (loss of hair all over the body). Clinical diagnosis of AA is made based on typical pattern of hair loss and the presence of characteristic exclamation mark hair in microscopy. Invasive (punch biopsy) techniques are often required in some cases where the clinical diagnosis is not straight forward Biopsy shows peribulbar lymphocytic infiltrates in a “swarm of bee pattern” which is characteristic of the acute stage of the disease.</p> <p>Dermoscopy is an imaging instrument that immensely magnifies surface features of skin lesions. It works on the principle of illumination and transillumination of skin with different light sources and studying it with a high magnification lens. Dry dermoscopy was done with heine delta 20 dermoscope which was followed by wet dermoscopy. Liquid paraffin was used as the immersion media. It is a noninvasive, repeatable, recordable bedside investigation.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To study dermoscopic findings in alopecia areata.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Study Design: Cross sectional study; Study Area: Skin Outpatient Department, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital; Study Population: All patients with hair loss, attending skin OPD, who are clinically diagnosed as Alopecia Areata; Study Method: Observational study; Sample Size: 30.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Clinically, the disease presents as smooth, patchy hair loss with various patterns<strong>.</strong> Dermoscopy is useful for diagnosis of AA clinically by the presence of cadaverized hairs (black dots), circle hair, coudablity hair, exclamation mark hairs (tapering hairs), broken hairs, yellow dots and clustered short vellus hairs in the hair loss areas. The results wear tabulated.</p> Kovi Sneha, Jayakar Thomas ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30579 Mon, 03 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Use of Anticoagulants and Antiplatelet Agents among Outpatients in Alkharj https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30580 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Thromboembolic diseases are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Anticoagulants and antiplatelet medications are important therapies in the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases.&nbsp;There is a limited data about the prescribing of these medications.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study aims to describe the pattern of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents use among outpatients in Alkharj.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This is a retrospective study that includes the electronic prescriptions among outpatients in a public hospital in Alkharj</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Aspirin was the most commonly prescribed agent (61.73%) followed by clopidogrel (18.60%) and enoxaparin (69%). Aspirin and clopidogrel was the most commonly prescribed combination (77.27%). Antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants result in improve several benefits but also could result in severe adverse effects and several drug interactions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The prescribers should ensure that benefit of Antiplatelet and anticoagulant outweigh the bleeding risk before prescribing these medications. It is important also to implement educational interventions to improve their use.</p> Nehad J. Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30580 Mon, 03 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge, Practices and Attitude of Healthcare Providers about Using Face Mask to Limit the Spread of the Novel Coronavirus Disease https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30581 <p><strong>Aim: </strong>There is evidence that health care providers have insufficient knowledge and poor practices regarding the use of surgical mask. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the knowledge, practices and attitude of healthcare providers about using face mask in order to limit the spreading of the novel coronavirus disease.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>:</strong> This was a cross sectional pilot study included a questionnaire about the knowledge of health care workers regarding the use of surgical face mask to prevent the new COVID-19 spreading and about their practices and the attitude of them regarding the use of surgical face mask to limit the new COVID-19 exposure.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>About 86.21<strong>% </strong>of health care workers said that the correct way of using surgical face mask is White side facing in and about 65.52% of them said that N-95 mask is the mask type that actually protect against COVID-19. All of the respondents reported that they wear a mask in public places to protect themselves against COVID-19 and that they wear a mask in hospital premises to protect themselves against COVID-19 (100.00%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The Knowledge, attitude, and practice of health care providers regarding the use of surgical face masks were found to be good but still more knowledge is required about several aspects such as the types of masks, the duration of using masks and the disposal of the masks.</p> Nehad J. Ahmed, Omar S. Alanazi, Abeer A. Alzahrani, Rana E. Alonazi ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30581 Mon, 03 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the P16INK4a Expression in Cervical Biopsy Specimen SBMCH https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30582 <p>In early 1980 human papillomavirus (HPV) were the risk factor and most commonly affects younger women. Many test have developed since then and among that a biomarker test system have developed and clinically evaluated.&nbsp; P16INK4a is used as an important marker for indicating neoplastic transformation for cervical dyplasia. This study was done to evaluate the P16INK4a expression in cervical biopsy in 50 cases. Two cases were identified a P16INK4a positive and remaining 48 didn’t show P16INK4a expression proving the hypothesis that p16INK4a is capable of showing the dysplasia positive cases.</p> Amish Aggarwal, I. Venkatraman, M. Prabakaran ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30582 Mon, 03 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison between Conventional Gastric Adenocarcinoma and EBV Associated Gastric Carcinoma https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30583 <p>Epstein Barr Virus (EBV or Human herpesvirus 4) belongs to the genus Lymphocryptoviridae, the gamma 1 subtype of the Subfamily Gamma herpes viridae and is one of the most common viruses in humans. It is present in all populations, infecting more than 95% of all individuals within the first four decades of life. In developing countries, infections occur very early in life with no specific characteristics other than the general symptoms of acute viremia. In developed countries however, the infection is usually delayed until adolescence or early childhood years where it causes infectious mononucleosis, a benign self-limiting lymphoproliferative disorder. Though the infection with EBV is benign in the acute stages and latent in the chronic phase in the vast majority of people, the virus has been demonstrated to be involved in the development of many malignancies with the list of such malignancies progressively increasing. The first association was with the endemic Burkitt’s lymphoma. Subsequently, other lymphomas (subtypes of Hodgkin’s and non-hodgkin’s lymphomas) are also known to be associated with EBV infection. Epithelial malignancies such as lymphoepitheliomas of nasopharynx and stomach are included in the list of EBV associated tumors. Tumors arise as a result of genetic and epigenetic alterations produced by the virus, which transforms the normal cell into an immortalized proliferating cell. Since Burke et al first detected EBV in undifferentiated lymphoepithelioma like gastric cancer in 1990, many researches are undertaken to prove the same. EBV expresses latent membrane protein which can be detected immune histochemically. Our study is aimed at detecting the EBV expression in gastric carcinoma cells.</p> A. R. Arshad, M. R. Rajashekar, N. Srinivasan ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30583 Mon, 03 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Carbon Based Kajal Formulations: Antimicrobial Activity and Feasibility as a Semisolid Base for Ophthalmics https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30586 <p>Study aimed to prepare and evaluate carbon based kajal formulation and carry out its comparative evaluation with the marketed formulations of kajal.</p> <p>Initially, carbon soot was deposited on Aloe vera mucilage spreaded on a copper plate, in specifically designed apparatus. Subsequently, sun dried plate was allowed to expose to the flame of cow ghee for 1 hr. Soot which was deposited on the copper plate was scrapped and Characterization of Soot by SEM, TEM, FTIR, XRD and EDX was carried out and kajal was prepared by adding few drops of cow ghee to it. The kajal was compared with the five marketed kajal formulations available in India, on the basis of physical characteristics their antibacterial potential was also assessed against <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coli.</em></p> <p>All the formulations exhibited almost similar physical characteristics. The prepared kajal showed pH (7.06±0.13). The antimicrobial activity of the marketed formulations was comparatively less than that of freshly prepared exhibiting zone of inhibition 13.05±0.11, 20.08± 0.13 and 22.06±0.18 mm against <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus</em> aureus, and&nbsp;&nbsp; <em>E. coli</em> respectively. EDX spectra, revealed that the cow ghee soot have the weight percentage of carbon and copper as 79.20 and 17.10% respectively and Confirmed the absence of Lead (Pb). The eye irritation test (OECD 405) also showed no any irritation, redness, watering of the eye or swelling was not observed for prepared formulation in test animal. Prepared Kajal can be safely used for beatification and also in the treatment of eye diseases especially in pediatrics.</p> Dheeraj S. Randive, Somnath D. Bhinge, Namdeo R. Jadhav, Mangesh A. Bhutkar, Mrunal K. Shirsat ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30586 Tue, 04 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Eleusine indica Linn, Baertin (Poaceae) Ethanol Leaf Extract and Its Ethyl Acetate Fraction Display Potential Anti-inflammatory Activities https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30587 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Inflammation is the underlying cause of most of the chronic diseases that occur with aging. Although many drugs are available for the management of inflammatory disorders and their symptoms, most of these drugs possess serious adverse effects that limit their usefulness. This has encouraged the unending search for potent anti-inflammatory drugs from plant sources as alternatives to conventional drug treatment of inflammation. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol leaf extract of <em>E. indica</em> and the ethylacetate fraction in rodents.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The leaves were extracted with ethanol by cold maceration and the extract was fractionated with n-hexane, ethylacetate, butanol and water. The oral acute toxicity (LD<sub>50</sub>) of the extract and the phytochemical constituents of the extract and the fractions were determined. The anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract (EE) and ethylacetate fraction (ETF) and their possible mechanisms of actions were investigated.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The oral LD<sub>50</sub> of the extract was above 5000 mg/kg. Both the EE and ETF displayed dose-dependent inhibition of the rat paw edema, with ETF producing between 48-54% edema inhibition. Xylene-induced topical edema was significantly (p &lt; 0.05) reduced by both the EE and ETF, with ETF causing between 48 and 65% inhibition. The EE and ETF preserved the integrity of gastric mucosa. Their average ulcer index (1.37±0.02) was significantly lower than that of indomethacin (5.20±0.23). Pre-treatment with the EE and ETF significantly (p &lt; 0.05) reduced leucocyte migration, especially the neutrophils. Both heat- and hypotonicity-induced hemolysis of RBC membrane were remarkably inhibited.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory activity may involve among others inhibition of leukocyte migration and membrane stabilization.</p> Peter Achunike Akah, Adaobi Ogonna Ezeugo ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30587 Tue, 04 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Age and Gender Differences in the Pattern of Antiplatelet Agents Prescribing https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30588 <p><strong>Aim: </strong>There is a scarcity of data regarding gender and age related aspects of antiplatelet drugs utilization&nbsp;in the outpatient setting. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine the age-and gender-related differences in the outpatient use of antiplatelet drugs in Alkharj.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This is a retrospective study that include the assessment of electronic prescriptions in the outpatient setting that include an antiplatelet drug in 2018.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Ticagrelor was prescribed mainly for patients more than 60 years old (84.62%). Clopidogrel was prescribed mainly for patients more than 50 years old (79.76%) and aspirin also was prescribed mainly for patients more than 50 years old (71.67%). Generally, most of the patients who received antiplatelet agents were male (52.76%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study showed that there were differences in prescribing antiplatelet agents between different gender and different ages. So it is important to know the prescribing trends and to give the appropriate drugs based on several factors such as gender and age. It is expected that in the future, antiplatelet therapy may be based on age and on endogenous sex hormone level or genetic female/male differences.</p> Nehad J. Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30588 Tue, 04 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Preparation and Physicochemical Evaluation of Lumefantrine-2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin Binary Systems https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30589 <p>Lumefantrine contributes significant roles in artemisinin-based combination therapy for malaria treatment but associated with a limitation of poor aqueous solubility and low permeability. This study investigated lumefantrine-2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complex to improve its solubility profile. A phase-solubility analysis and molecular modelling were carried out before the preparation of the complex by physical mixture, kneading, co-evaporation and freeze-drying methods. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic and powder X-ray diffractometric (PXRD) techniques were used to characterised the complex. The phase-solubility studies showed a type AL diagram with an apparent stability constant value of 243.4 M<sup>-1</sup> suggesting the formation of a soluble and stable complex. Significant improvements in aqueous solubility was achieved, notably the freeze-dried system gave a 3-fold and 11-fold increase in solubility in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids respectively. The FT-IR spectra and PXRD patterns of co-evaporated and freeze-dried systems indicated stronger interactions and complexation of lumefantrine in the 2-HP-β-CD cavities. Our findings suggest that the host-guest binary system of lumefantrine-2-HP-β-CD is achievable, structural stable via intermolecular interactions consisting of hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interaction. The inclusion complex is considered a formulation option to ameliorate the poor aqueous solubility of lumefantrine which might improve the absorption and therapeutic efficacy of the drug.</p> Adebanjo J. Adegbola, Ezekiel Omotoso, Olujide O. Olubiyi, Julius O. Soyinkaa, Oluseye O. Bolaji, Cyprian O. Onyeji ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30589 Tue, 04 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Perceived Social Empowerment Status of the Medicinal Plant Growers https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30590 <p>The indigenous systems of medicine in India are Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani which is practised from ancient times. India and China are the two major countries having 40 per cent of the global diversity and are known as the house of medicinal plants. Most of the medicinal plants are gathered from the forest areas to meet the demand of the medicinal profession, which becomes exhaustible if overused and sustainable when used with care and wisdom. Hence, it is important to take efforts to grow them as commercial crops. Several theoretical concepts to measure empowerment of farmers have been identified and proposed world wide, very few studies have been conducted to measure their empowerment. This paper presents the Perceived Social Empowerment status of medicinal plant growers.</p> N. Suganthi, P. Balasubramaniam ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30590 Wed, 05 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Reflex Therapy on Stress and Blood Pressure among Older Adults with Hypertension https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30591 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> Reflex therapy relieves tension, relaxes the mind, improves the circulation of the body. In hypertension, vascular resistance increases the pressure of the blood vessels. The study was aimed to assess the pretest and post-test levels of stress and blood pressure (BP), evaluate the effectiveness of the reflex therapy among older adults with hypertension, and to associate the level of stress and BP with demographic variables.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Community-based randomized controlled trial was adopted.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The urban area, Poonamallee, in Chennai, between October to December 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Among 100 older adults, 50 participants were selected in each experimental and control group by using simple randomization. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and dual function BP monitor was used to assess the stress and BP respectively. Reflex therapy was provided for 6 weeks to the older adults with hypertension, who had low and moderate levels of stress in the experimental group. The different pressures such as 100%, 75%, and 50%, that was applied in the foot for 15 minutes weekly twice by reflexology stick, when the participants were in an empty stomach. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean and standard deviation value of pretest and post-test stress level was 14.84±6.02, 9.4±4.73 in experimental group, 13.32±5.3 and 13.04±5.09 in control group respectively. This proves that reflex therapy was effective in reducing stress levels which was statistically significant (<em>P</em>=0.001). Mean and standard deviation of systolic BP in pretest and post-test was 142.74±5.98 and 137.78±5.69; 141.11±6.18 and 142.03±6.29, and diastolic BP was 98.21±3.28; 97.31±3.15 and 97.94±3.59; 98.96±3.34 in experimental and control group respectively indicated that the reflex therapy helps to reduce the level of BP (<em>P</em>=0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Reflex therapy is beneficial to older adults particularly with hypertension for relieving stress and reducing systolic and diastolic BP.</p> Sahbanathul Missiriya, J. Suhail Hassan, Arul Anunncia ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30591 Wed, 05 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Some Cytokines, CD4, Hepcidin, Iron Profile and Some Haematological Parameters of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients Coinfected with HIV in Southeast of Nigeria https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30592 <p>The study was done to determine the levels of interferon-gamma, interleukin 6, interleukin 10, iron status, hepcidin and haematological parameters of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Southeast, Nigeria<strong>. </strong>This study was carried out at the directly observed treatment-short course Tuberculosis (TB DOTS) centre of Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, located in South-Eastern Nigeria. Therefore, sample size of 240 was used to give room for attrition. A total of two hundred and forty (240) subjects aged 18-60 years were enlisted for this study. Seven milliliters (7ml) of venous blood was collected from each subject and 2.5 ml was dispensed into bottles containing di-potassium salt of ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (K<sub>2</sub>-EDTA) and was used for full blood count, CD4 count and HIV screening. Also, 4.5ml was dispensed into plain tubes. Serum was obtained after clotting by spinning at 3000 RPM for 10 minutes and was used for interferon gamma, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10, iron and hepcidin determination. Data was analysed using statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20. Student t-test, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance), Pearson Product Moment and Chi-Square were the tools employed. Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation and are presented in table and significance level was set at P&lt;0.05.The results showed difference that was statistically significant (P&lt;0.05) in IFN-γ (P=0.000), IL-6 (P=0.000) IL-10 (P=0.000), CD4 (P=0.000), hepcidin (P=0.000), Iron (P=0.000), TIBC (P=0.000), %TSA&nbsp; (P=0.001) ,WBC (P=0.000), Neutrophils (P=0.000), Lymphocyes (P=0.000), Monocytes (P=0.000), Eosinophils (P=0.000), Basophils (P=0.018), RBC (P=0.000), haemoglobin (P=0.000), PCV (P=0.000), MCV (P=0.000), MCH (P=0.000), MCHC (P=0.000), Platelets (P=0.000), ESR (P=0.000) when compared among&nbsp; control, TB, HIV and TB-HIV subjects respectively. The co infection of HIV on pulmonary TB patients increases the levels of the cytokines. The cytokines and hepcidin can be used as adjunct to prognostic and diagnostic markers as their levels decreased with increased duration of treatment of the patients. The study has shown wide variations in the haemtological indices studied.</p> Obeagu Emmanuel Ifeanyi, Esimai Bessie N., Obeagu Getrude Uzoma, Ochiabuto O. M. T. B., Chukwurah Ejike Felix, Ekelozie Ifeoma Stella, Ochie Kingsley Chinedum ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30592 Wed, 05 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Immunomodulatory Effects of Zinc as a Supportive Strategies for COVID-19 https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30577 <p>Coronaviruses 2019 (Covid-19) is a massive family of viruses that causes respiratory illnesses ranging from the common cold to the most severe conditions such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that represents the humanitarian crisis on a global scale. Currently, there are no therapeutic strategies approved by the U.S.Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to cure or prevent COVID-19. Global research efforts from around the world extrapolate the updates focusing specifically on the biphasic nature of Covid-19 that involve both innate and acquired immunity. Even though researchers around the globe are racing to invent a life-saving therapeutics and vaccines to tackle COVID-19, the only available venture is a supportive approach in rendering treatment to patients with severe and non-severe cases of COVID-19. Supplementation of several vitamins and trace elements showed the expected favorable impact on enhancing immunity in viral infection. Numerous studies prompted the value of zinc (Zn) supplementation that prevents the virus from entering cells by binding with protein in potentiating antiviral immunity, which is realized through different mechanisms, including the improvement in markers of immune function. Zinc is also an associated factor for several enzymes (needed for the activity for over 300 enzymes), transcription factors, and replication factors. Interestingly, low-level zinc results in dysfunction of all immune cells, subjects with altered zinc state have a high risk for infectious disorders, autoimmune disorders, and cancer. Several assumptions regarding immunomodulators of zinc remain unresolved. This review aimed to explore the hypothetical association of Zinc supplementation (the key immunomodulator) in association with a preventive and therapeutic role of treating patients with COVID-19.</p> Nahla A. Tayyib, Pushpamala Ramaiah, Fatmah J. Alsolami, Mohammed S. Alshmemri ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30577 Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000