Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-9119)</strong> is dedicated to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JPRI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all areas of pharmaceutical Science including pharmaceutical drugs, community pharmacy, hospital pharmacy, clinical pharmacy, compounding pharmacy, consultant pharmacy, internet pharmacy, veterinary pharmacy, nuclear pharmacy, military pharmacy, pharmacy informatics, pharmaceutics, medicinal chemistry, pharmacognosy, pharmacotherapy, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical pharmacology, neuropharmacology, psychopharmacology, pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics, pharmacoepidemiology, toxicology, theoretical pharmacology, posology, pharmacognosy, behavioral pharmacology, environmental pharmacology, medicine development and safety testing, drug legislation and safety, pharmaceutical microbiology, pharmaceutical molecular biology, pharmaceutical biotechnology.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International) (Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International) Wed, 25 May 2022 08:01:44 +0000 OJS 60 Frequency of Teenage Pregnancy, Its Associated Risk Factors, Complications and Impact on Fetal Outcome <p><strong>Aim:</strong> To determine the frequency of teenage pregnancy with associated risk factors and various complications, and to evaluate the obstetric and fetal outcome.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This cross-sectional study was conducted at the departments of Community Medicine, Pathology and Gynecology &amp; Obstetrics, Peoples University of Medical and Health Sciences, Nawabshah, and Suleman Roshan Medical College Tando Adam, from January 2019- June 2020, consisting of 108 teenage mother group (13-18 years) and 108 adult primigravid reference mother group (19-22 years) that gave birth during the study period.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The teenage group had mostly Spontaneous vaginal delivery 61.11% (n=66). Majority of the teenage mothers suffered from pregnancy complication of anemia 72. 2% (n=78) compared with the reference group 22.2% (n=24). 46.29% neonates of the teenaged group mothers developed complications including Low birth weight 52% (n=26), Preterm Birth 10% (n=5) and most serious complication Perinatal death 4% (n=2) compared to the reference group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The teenage pregnancies are high risk pregnancies with potential maternal and fetal complications.</p> Nazia Azam Yousfani, Mehwish Zafar, Faisal Irshad, Faiza Syed, Shabnam Aijaz Khowaja, Fareeda Wagan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 25 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Use the Complete Blood Counts and Esr as Biomarkers Prognostic Tool in Breast Cancer Patients Attending Surgery Department at Esut Teaching Hospital, Parklane Enugu Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong>&nbsp;Full blood count is a prerequisite investigation requested from all breast cancer patients before and during treatment.Poor parameters adversely influence the outcome of cancers.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study investigated the use of Complete Blood Count (CBC) and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) as biomarker prognostic tool in breast cancer subjects.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The sample size comprised of 110 female subjects and controls with ages between 21-70 years. A longitudinal study method was used. The samples were collected from apparently healthy individuals as control, pre-treatment at diagnosis and the treatment samples at different stages of the treatment. Questionnaire used obtained other demographic information. The data was analyzed with IBM SPSS PC. Version 20.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, III., USA.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Results showed that increased Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) and decreased Lymphocyte / Monocyte Ratio (LMR) were significantly associated with increased hazard ratio (HR) and decreased OS at p&lt;0.05 while Platelet/Lymphocyte Ratio ( PLR) had no significant difference at P&gt;0.05 in Breast Cancer. In CBC and ESR, control, pre-treatment and treatment period, red blood cell (RBC) parameters and total white blood cell (TWBC) parameters decreased significantly at p&lt;0.05 in treatment results compared to the pre-treatment and control results while others showed no significant increase at p&lt;0.05 in treatment results compared to pre-treatment results. Treatment red cell distribution width (RDW) and mean platelet volume (MPV) observed a significant increase (p&lt;0.05) compared to the control and pre-treatment results. Age group 21-30 years showed more susceptibility than other age groups with lowest meanĀ±SD in CBC and ESR but with no significant difference at p&gt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study supports the concept that biomarkers such as CBC and ESR can be used as a prognostic tool in early detection, treatment and monitoring of the disease progression in these subjects</p> N. Soronnadi Clara, N. C. Ibeh, F. O. Ugwuene, L. Maduka, O. Odurukwe, E. I. Aneke, M. Ajuba ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 25 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Formulation and Evaluation of Superporus Hydrogel Composite as a Gastro Retentive Drug Delivery for Cefditoren Pivoxil <p>The purpose of this work was to incorporate superporus hydrogels for cefditoren pivoxil by using polymer like poly acrylic acid aqua cc polymer and composite agent like cross linked sodium carboxy methyl cellulose in the presence of N,N-methylene-bis-Acrylamide as crosslinking agent. Pluronic F-127 as a stabilizer and ammonium per sulfate and tetramethylene diamine as a initiator pair. Poly acrylic acid aqua cc polymer-cross linked sodium carboxy methyl cellulose superporus hydrogels of cefditoren pivoxil were incorporate by gas blowing technique. The reaction&nbsp; of pH on the swelling ratio was decisive. Swelling reversibility research was also achieve. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis and scanning electron microscopy studies were assume to indicate the drug loaded superporous hydrogels, while dissolution studies were achieve to assess release characteristics. Swelling was hugely depending on the term of crosslinking and the quantity of the polymer existing in formulation. The huge amount of cross-linking agent reduced the swelling ratio. The superporous hydrogels were hugely perceptive to pH of swelling medium, and exhibit reversible swelling and de-swelling behavior during still keep their mechanical stability. Apparent density was reliant on the amount of the superporous hydrogels and reduced with developing crosslink density. Degradation kinetics reveals that poly acrylic acid aqua cc polymer superporous hydrogels had good water holding potential. Drug release was similar to quantity of cross-linking agent. The studies report that poly acrylic acid aqua cc polymer superporous hydrogels can be used as a Gastroretentive drug delivery system in view of their swelling characteristics in acidic pH.</p> D. Jeslin, K. Nithyakalyani, P. Panneerselvam, V. Padmaja, P. Suresh Kumar, S. Anand Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 25 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000