Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-9119)</strong> is dedicated to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JPRI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all areas of pharmaceutical Science including pharmaceutical drugs, community pharmacy, hospital pharmacy, clinical pharmacy, compounding pharmacy, consultant pharmacy, internet pharmacy, veterinary pharmacy, nuclear pharmacy, military pharmacy, pharmacy informatics, pharmaceutics, medicinal chemistry, pharmacognosy, pharmacotherapy, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical pharmacology, neuropharmacology, psychopharmacology, pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics, pharmacoepidemiology, toxicology, theoretical pharmacology, posology, pharmacognosy, behavioral pharmacology, environmental pharmacology, medicine development and safety testing, drug legislation and safety, pharmaceutical microbiology, pharmaceutical molecular biology, pharmaceutical biotechnology.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International en-US Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International 2456-9119 Histopath Salpingo-oophorectomy Cervical Moderate Dysplasia: A Case Report https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/32990 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Cervical dysplasia is a term used to describe a condition that is on the verge of becoming malignant where aberrant cell proliferation takes place on the cervix or endocervical canals surface lining. Another name for it is cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) can occur at any age. It has a strong relationship to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection spread through sexual contact.</p> <p><strong>Case History:</strong> A case of 34 year old woman admitted in gynecology unit on date June 3, 2021, a month ago when she started experiencing pain in abdomen. It was insidious in onset, continuous type, not associated with bleeding per vaginal. Patient has previous history of five abortions. Patient underwent investigations like complete blood count, kidney function test, liver function test, radiographic investigations and colposcopy where she was found to have moderate dysplasia and chronic cervicitis. Histopathology report also indicated moderate dysplasia with chronic cervicitis.</p> <p><strong>Interventions:</strong> Primarily, the pain management is necessary for such patients. Later on all further investigations and procedures performed to confirm the diagnosis and treat the patient accordingly. The aim during the treatment is to safeguard the life and further complications.</p> <p><strong>Outcomes:</strong> Over this period of long course treatment, the patient significantly reduced the severity of infection and pain. Improved the daily activities, appetite and sleep. Progress of patient towards her goal of recovering as early as possible.</p> <p><strong>Discussion:</strong> The patients response was quite good to treatment, however additional interventions could be used in the future for her greater improvements in disease.</p> Kalyani Ambule Manjusha Mahakarkar Bali Thool ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-25 2021-10-25 66 71 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47A32990 Case Report on Paranoid Schizophrenia with Capgras Syndrome https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/32991 <p>Paranoid is the most common delusion in people living with schizophrenia spectrum disorders which are present in about half of all people seeking treatment for a psychotic disorder. Schizophrenia is a persistent mental illness characterized by a wide range of symptoms, including delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech or behavior, and cognitive impairment. Capgras syndrome is a form of the delusional belief in which a person has been replaced by an imposter. It can be seen in mental disorders as well as in central nervous system diseases in the form of neurodegenerative and non- neurodegenerative diseases The Capgras Syndrome is not an unusual condition, but an infrequent one which is possibly often unnoticed. A 48- years- old woman was admitted in female psychiatric ward with known case of paranoid schizophrenia with capgras syndrome. In the present case, the treatment approach was mainly somatic therapy i.e. psychopharmacotherapy, Electro convulsive Therapy (ECT) and psychological therapy. Psychiatric nurses have to play an important role to identify the symptoms and they should think critically, take action immediately to provide care to such type of patients.</p> Pooja Kasturkar Jaya Pranoykumar Gawai Tessy Sebastian Trupti Uke Dharti Meshram Shabnam Sayyad Samual Vanlalpeka ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-25 2021-10-25 72 77 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47A32991 A Case of Rheumatoid Arthritis Associated with Microcytic Anemia https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/32996 <p>Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the most common inflammatory arthritides. It is associated with multiple systemic features, including hematological manifestations such as anemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. However, immune hemolytic anemia is extremely rare with only 3 reports indexed in medline, and one of them being due to methotrexate toxicity.</p> <p>Microcytic anemia is a condition in which the body's tissues and organs do not get enough oxygen. This lack of oxygen can happen because the body does not have enough red blood cells, or because the red blood cells do not contain enough hemoglobin, which is a protein that transports oxygen in the blood.</p> <p><strong>Case Presentation: </strong>A 60 year old female a known case of rhematoid arthritis and hypothyrodisam in 2013 for last past 3 years. Who presented to us with history of recurrent anemia . In march 2021, she was admitted to hospital because of palpitations and shortness of breath due to severe anemia. Results of laboratory studies were hemoglobin, 6.9 gm/dl and haptoglobin, less than 29.8mg/dl. A diagnosis of anemia was made on the basis of the laboratory findings She was transfused with 1units packed red blood cells (pRBCs) over less than 6 hours. High-dose PSL (50 mg/day) was started, and the anemia improved. The hemoglobin level increased to 7.0 gm/dl within the 1st week.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The differential diagnosis of various hematological disorders should include rheumatic autoimmune diseases among other causes of blood cell and hemostasis abnormalities. It is crucial that hematologists be aware of Treatment should be administered promptly, with rheumatological consultation.</p> Jaya Khandar Achita Sawarkar Madhuri Shambharkar Pooja Kasturkar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-25 2021-10-25 114 117 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47A32996 Protocol on the Effects of Postnatal Exercises on Musculoskeletal Pain among Postpartum Women https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/32985 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Pregnancy brings a slew of morphological and physiological changes to the body. The gravida must not only nourish the foetus, but also adjust to a new body habit and hormonal changes. These alterations, unsurprisingly, have an impact on the musculoskeletal system, which can lead to a number of issues, such as generalized arthralgias, back pain, separation of the pelvic bones, transient osteoporosis, and tendonitis.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> 1. To assess the pretest and posttest musculoskeletal pain among postpartum women in experimental and control group. 2. To assess the effectiveness of postnatal exercises related to musculoskeletal pain among postpartum women in experimental group. 3. To find association between posttest musculoskeletal pain score among postpartum women with selected demographic variables in experimental and control group.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Quasi-experimental pretest posttest design is used to assess the effectiveness of postnatal exercises, among postpartum women in selected hospitals of Wardha. 80 sample size taken who fulfils the inclusion criteria, 40 postpartum women for control and 40 for experimental group with non-probability convenience sampling.</p> <p><strong>Expected Results:</strong> This study is planned to assess the effectiveness of postnatal exercises to the postpartum women experiencing musculoskeletal pain syndrome. Hence, it is expected to identify the level of pain and may reduce their level of pain.</p> <p>The conclusion will be drawn from the results and will be published in per review journal.</p> Kalyani Ambule Manjusha Mahakarkar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-23 2021-10-23 12 16 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47A32985 Nursing Skill and Responsibility in Administration of Low Molecular Weight Heparin by Prefilled Syringe https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/32993 <p><strong>Abstract: </strong>Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) have proven to be effective in the prevention and treatment of thrombotic disorders, as well as&nbsp;&nbsp; substitute for unfractionated heparin (UFH). LMWHs are a diverse collection of medicines with different biochemical and pharmacological characteristics, despite the fact that they all have antithrombotic actions. Medicine is administered into the subcutaneous tissues with these injections. Small amounts of injections are delivered by the subcutaneous approach, which involves inserting a small thin needle beneath the skin and slowly injecting the medicine. Low molecular weight heparins make up dalteparin and enoxaparin, two anticoagulants. The rights of medicine administration must be followed by nurses. For patients on LMWH medication, the most essential blood test is prothrombin time. Following administration, look for any signs of bleeding, such as occult blood in the stool, malena, bleeding gums, and skin discoloration/hematoma. The antidote for low molecular weight heparin is protamine sulphate. It is effective at counteracting the effects of LMWH. 100 units of LMWH are neutralised by 1 mg of protamine sulphate.If it's been more than 8 hours since you've given LMWH, provide 0.5 mg protamin per 100 units of LMWH.</p> Vaishali Tembhare Gaurav Mujbaile Seema Singh Achita Sawarkar Maduri Shambharkar Prerana Sakharwade ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-25 2021-10-25 85 92 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47A32993 Effective Medicine Treatment for Corona Patients at Home in COVID 19 Pandemic - and Roles of Nurses and Doctors for Heart Failures Treatment Attached https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/32987 <p>In the case of developing countries such as Vietnam, we will have a new approach of attacking corona virus and help patients at home with effective medicine treatment solutions as presented in this paper, it will help other nations as well and they can use it as reference.</p> <p>Authors will use qualitative analysis and experience and expertise from experts to explore this solution.</p> <p>Our study results show that there are several methods to treat corona patients at home effectively and that are tested in some countries including Vietnam. Currently Vietnam is testing Molnupiravir and other methods of treatment which will be presented, while WHO and Japan also have other approaches as presented in the study. Last but not least, authors suggest treatment of heart failures attached for patients and self-care knowledge for these patients.</p> Vu Thanh Binh Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy Pham Thi Bich Ngoc Pham Thi Hong Nhung Dinh Tran Ngoc Hien Ngo Huy Hoang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-23 2021-10-23 38 48 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47A32987 The Effect of Antibiotics and Drugs on the Duration of COVID-19 in Hospitalized Patients https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/32988 <p>This is a single center, retrospective, observational study carried out in Ohud hospital, the main referral hospital for SARS-CoV-2 infections in the region of Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study was carried on hospitalized patients with moderate to severe symptoms, including critically ill patients in the intensive care unit mostly of them requiring oxygen or mechanical ventilator support. Medical records from 432 cases were investigated showing that the majority of infected population were adults with an average age of 48 years, where 68.3% were males and the mortality rate was 5.6%. Duration of the disease was determined as the period between the first positive and the first negative PCR results. Patients who received antibiotics or Metoclopramide showed shorter duration of the disease time course while those who received Hydroxychloroquine, Omeprazole or Calcium exhibited longer durations before obtaining a negative PCR result. Regression analysis furtherly confirmed that antibiotics administration was associated with shorter course of disease while hydroxychloroquine or omeprazole were correlated with longer duration of the disease. Antiviral drugs, however, showed no correlations to the COVID-19 duration of stay in hospital. Finally, combining antibiotics and antiviral agents did not result in a better outcome, suggesting that the use of antibacterial agents helps in the recovery of SARS-CoV-2 patients.</p> Amin Khattab Fahad Dakilallah Aljohani Roa Halawani Heba Mahmoud Eltahir Ahmed M. Shehata Saleh K. Ihmaid Ahmed Aldhafiri Mekky Abouzied Hossein M. Elbadawy Najawa Mghrbi Heba M. H. Matar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-25 2021-10-25 49 58 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47A32988 Use of ATP, GTP, ADP and AMP as an Index of Energy Utilization and Storage in HIV Infected Individuals at NAUTH, Nigeria: A Longitudinal, Prospective, Case-Controlled Study https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/32992 <p>Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with altered metabolism and increased energy expenditure, this energy requirement increases significantly as the HIV disease progresses. This study aimed on the use of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), Guanosine triphosphate (GTP), Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) as an index of energy utilization, storage and energy balance in HIV infected individuals. This is a longitudinal, prospective, case-controlled study involving seventy seven (77) HIV Sero-positive individuals newly diagnosed attending retroviral disease treatment centre of Nnamdi Azikiwe University University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH) aged 18-60 years both male and female not on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), were enrolled in the study as test subjects and thirty six (36) apparently healthy HIV Sero-negative individuals both male and female as control subjects. ATP, GTP, ADP and AMP were estimated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while, total Energy Balance was determined by calculation. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS software application (version 21.0) and the results expressed as mean ± standard deviation. The plasma ATP and GTP were significantly lower (P&lt;0.05) in both HIV pre-treatment and post-treatment group compared with control group. Meanwhile, the plasma level of ADP and AMP were significantly lower (P&lt;0.05) in HIV post-treatment group compared&nbsp;&nbsp; with HIV pre-treatment and control group. There was also a significant difference (P&lt;0.05) in ATP, ADP, AMP and GTP level between HIV pre-treatment and post-treatment group. Meanwhile, the energy balance was lower (P&lt;0.05) in HIV groups compared with control group. However, the energy balance in HIV post-treatment group was significantly lower (P&lt;0.05) compared to HIV pre- treatment group. In conclusion, the significant changes in the biochemical parameters measured suggest altered metabolism, increased energy expenditure and energy deficit/negative energy balance in HIV subjects resulting from increased energy expenditure. Hence, High energy molecules such ATP, ADP, GTP and AMP can be used to predict early energy deficit and manage energy imbalance in HIV infected individuals.</p> Uchenna Modestus Ezugwu Chinedum Charles Onyenekwe Nkiruka Rose Ukibe Joseph Eberendu Ahaneku Christian Ejike Onah Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu Paul Isaac Emeje Joseph Chimezie Awalu Gabriel Ejike Igbokwe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-25 2021-10-25 78 84 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47A32992 Pharmacognostic Specifications of Calotropis procera (Aiton) W. T. Aiton Leaf and Tribulus terrestris L. Fruit: Important Medicinal Plants Used in Veterinary Products https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/32994 <p>Present article deals with the pharmacognostic specification of selected medicinal plants used in veterinary products for the purpose of their standardization, as evidential support concerning quality determination of plant material in veterinary medicine is scarce and there is poor documentation on primary studies of many species. The plants undertaken for the study were <em>Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) and Tribulus terresteris (Zygophyllaceae)</em> on the basis of their usage relevance in veterinary products. Both plants are official in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.&nbsp; Morphology as well as various pharmacognostic aspects of different parts of the plant were studied and have been described, which will help in authentication and quality control. The observed microscopic characters of <em>Calotropis procera</em> leaf were rubiaceous type apostomatic stomata, epidermis, collenchymas, parenchyma, vascular bundles, palisade cells, cortical fibres and lamina, trichomes on the cuticle of lamina. Microscopic characteristics of <em>Tribulus terrestris</em> fruit were epicarp cells showing clusters of calcium oxalate crystals, xylem vessels, group of thin walled sclerenchymatous fibres, group of stone cells of mesocarp. Powder microscopy of the <em>Tribulus terrestris</em> fruit shows abundance of epidermal trichomes - simple, short, long, thick walled, multicellular covered trichomes, sclereids. The qualitative microscopic features would prove useful for laying down their pharmacopoeial standards. The present study also provides the information with respect to identification and authentication of crude drug and serves as a reference point for the proper identification of <em>Calotropis procera</em> leaf and <em>Tribulus terrestris</em> fruit, thereby contributing to the scientific world of research.</p> . Monika . Akanksha Snigdha Lal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-25 2021-10-25 93 103 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47A32994 Autistic Effects of Nootropic Drug Brahmi against Propionic Acid-induced Behavior and Memory Impairment in Rat Model https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/32995 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> To evaluate the hydro alcoholic effect of <em>Brahmi </em>against propionic acid-induced behavior and memory impairment in rat model.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> This includes preclinical study on Sprague Dawley rats in which Propionic acid induced and evaluation of <em>in vivo</em> and <em>in vitro</em> models were performed.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Department of Pharmacology, C L Baid Metha College of Pharmacy Jan 2019 to June 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> We include a total of 27 adult Sprague Dawley Rats and induced propionic acid intracerebroventricular route to induce autism. Drug treatment using hydro alcoholic extract of <em>Bacopa monnieri</em> was given in 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg was compared with negative group rats and control groups. <em>In vivo</em> parameters like Actophotometer and marble burying test was done, <em>In vitro</em> analysis of Serotonin and Glutamate was estimated in the above treated groups.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The locomotor activity of rat was recorded individually for each animal using Actophotometer. HAEBM (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) treated rat produced an increase in the level of significance (P&lt;0.0001) on day one. In marble burying test Rats were located for thirty minutes in a standard cage covered with 5 cm depth of wood chip bedding with ten marbles evenly spaced. HAEBM (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) showed significant (P&lt;0.001) level of burying when compared to group-II rats (P&lt;0.01). In this research study 5HT level showed a significant (P&lt;0.001) increase in Group III, Group IV when compared with group-II (P&lt;0.01). Glutamate is an excitatory Neurotransmitter. Group II showed significant increase (P&lt;0.001) in the level of Glutamate but on drug treated groups III and IV shows decrease in concentration of glutamate.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The present study findings showed that the hydro alcoholic root extract of&nbsp;<em>brahmi</em> possesses neuroprotective activity with significant nootropic effects. The hydro alcoholic root extract of&nbsp;<em>Bacopa monnieri. L </em>showed the presence of various Gabapentin and flavonoids phenols may be the reason for its neuroprotection and memory improvement effects.</p> P. K. Anamika P. Muralidharan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-25 2021-10-25 104 113 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47A32995 Diosgenin Nanoparticles Competes Plain Diosgenin on Reviving Biochemical and Histopathological Alterations in DMBA Induced Rat Mammary Carcinoma via Modulating the AhR-Nrf-2 Signaling Cascades https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/32998 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Diosgenin, a steroidal saponin spotted as a primary ingredient in many traditional Chinese medicines, has sparked the attention of researchers owing to its multi-targeted cytotoxicity towards a multitude of cancers. Regrettably, its true potential was bounded by its impoverished physicochemical properties. In order to fully exploit its ability, we plan to fabricate diosgenin into nanoparticle by encapsulating with biodegradable polymer chitosan.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The current research intends to uncover the therapeutic potency of diosgenin encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles (DG@CS-NP) on 7,12dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced rat mammary carcinoma by optimizing biochemical and histopathological modifications via attenuating Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) - nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factors (Nrf-2) signaling.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Breast cancer was induced with a single dose of DMBA (25 mg/kg b.wt). Orally supplied DG 10mg/kg b.wt. and DG@CS-NP 5 mg/kg b.wt to DMBA-induced tumor-bearing rats shortly after tumor onset. After the experimental period, biochemical and histopathological studies were performed using mammary tissue sections. Furthermore, architectural immunohistochemistry was used to reveal the expression of AhR and Nrf-2 in experimental rats. Additionally, diosgenin interactions with these proteins were also evidently confirmed by molecular docking analysis.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>We noticed that there is an elevated level of lipid peroxidative marker, phase-I detoxification enzymes, total cholesterol (TC), phospholipids (PL), triglycerides (TG), and free fatty acids (FFA) with boosted AhR expressions as well as diminished levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and Phase – II detoxification enzymes with downtrodden Nrf-2 expressions in the mammary tissues of DMBA-induced rats. On the other contrary, oral dosing of DG@CS-NP 5 mg/kg b.wt, dramatically reverted them to near-normal tiers. Interestingly, molecular docking analyses also corroborate these insights by highlighting diosgenin's significant interactions with AhR and Nrf-2 targets.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>As an outcome of our observations, we conclude that nano-encapsulation of diosgenin is a potent targeted therapeutic candidate posing a massive impact on breast cancer than plain diosgenin.</p> Manobharathi Vengaimaran Kalaiyarasi Dhamodharan Mirunalini Sankaran ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-25 2021-10-25 141 157 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47A32998 A Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Progressive Muscle Relaxation Technique among the Patient with Anxiety Disorders in the Selected Mental Health Centers https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/32999 <p>Nowadays, major impact of researchers’ toevaluate the intensity of anxiety between Anxiety Disorder with the Patient, and theirefficacy of enlightened muscle relaxation and disorder of anxiety to the patients, intensity of anxiety amongst mental health center describe the anxiety disorder patients with correlated with the social cum geographical values. Hypothesis,&nbsp; nominated socio demographic variables around the difference between posttest level and pretestanxiety of disorder patients. Nearby is an important association among intensity of unease. In tangible background: Inaccurate Roy’s variation classical was cast-off for this study. Methodology: A Pre-experimental and progressive muscle and decreasetherapy by used as a posttest. 40 anxiety ailment patients were confident by successive sampling process.Hypothesis formulated between. Pre and posttest was shown progressive muscle relaxation on forty minutes trainingto the anxiety patients on 5 consecutive days. In our results suggested anxiety patients output of reduced levels of anxiety disorder on the 6<sup>th</sup> day of posttest. To evaluate the Reformist muscle slackening is non-invasive, cost effective, non – pharmacological complementary therapy to between disorder patients with anxiety and diminish anxiety. Also posttest levels varied with age, academic qualification, anxiety, social value and alcoholic addiction and its duration.</p> A. R. Bharathi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-25 2021-10-25 158 163 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47A32999 Anti Ulceration Efficacy of Boiled Aqueous Leaf Extract of Morinda lucida on Ethanol Induced Gastric Ulceration Rats https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/33000 <p>Stomach ulceration study was carried on 25 groups (5 rats each of the groups), groups (E, E<sub>1</sub>, E<sub>2, </sub>, E<sub>3</sub> and E<sub>C, </sub>placed on 24 hours fasting before the single dose of intra peritoneal dose administration of 5ml/kg body weight of 99% ethanol and&nbsp; after one hour, received daily extract of dilution doses of ((500, 1000, 1500) mg /kg) body weight and 100 mg /kg body weight cimentidine (standard drug) respectively for 7 days. Groups (EA<sub>1</sub>, EA<sub>2, </sub>, EA<sub>3</sub> and EA<sub>C, </sub>) were treated with the same extract doses and drug concentration for 7 days before the dose ethanol administration. Group Eand 0 served as a positive control and a negative control respectively. On day 9, target organs; stomach and intestines were harvested under anaesthetize weighed, gross macroscopically and histomorphological studied. Result of the study showed plant inhibition on ethanol induced gastric ulceration; the standard drug (cemetidine) and the mapped extract doses of ((500, 1000, 1500) mg /kg) body weight respectively showed normal organ architecture. Ulcer index study activities 70% indicating evidence of curative and preventive index range 35 to 43% showed some inhibition as seen on the gastric mucosa of the treated group. It was observed that the treatment and anti- ulceration effect of boiled aqueous leaf extract metabolites showed reduction on the histomorphological changes in the gastric mucosa and provided inhibition effectiveness of ethanol induced injury.</p> Nkiruka Millicent Amadi Peter Uwadiegwu Achukwu S. O. Onwukwe Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu Nonyelum V. Anoh Victoria I. Okpokwu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-25 2021-10-25 164 175 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47A33000 FTIR and XRD of Zinc Oxide Nano Particle from Mangifera indica L. anacardiaceae https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/33001 <p>Zinc Oxide nanoparticle (ZnO) is broadly used in food packaging industry. Synthesis of ZnO includes different methods like using chemical, gas and sol gel. But it contains more toxins. Hence biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticle is eco-friendly and non toxic. It acts as an anticancer, antidiabetic, antibacterial activity and so on. Trace metals like zinc, magnesium and chromium are involved in glucose metabolism and have a role in controlling blood glucose and hence in diabetic therapy. Zinc is also known to keep the structure of insulin and plays an important role in insulin synthesis, secretion and storage. Nano -ZnO is commonly utilized as additive in food. In this article we discussed about biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles from <em>Mangifera indica L. anacardiaceae</em> extract. Synthesized nanoparticles is subjected to its characterization such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) in the range between 4000cm<sup>-1</sup> to 400cm<sup>-1</sup> and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Functional group was identified in FTIR and nature, size, composition and degree of crystallinity were determined by using X−ray Diffraction analytical technique.</p> S. Udhaya Geetha S. Thilakavathy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-25 2021-10-25 176 181 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47A33001 Correlation of the Protein Expression of Salivary Cortisol, Serum Vitamin B12 and Interleukin 1 Beta in Patients with Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/33003 <p>This study will help in determining which molecules participate in the ulceration with an integrated approach combining external and internal factors. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis&nbsp;(RAS) is a common condition affecting the oral mucosa. Clinically it is manifested through recurrent painful lesions. A total of 28 subjects were recruited for this systematic case-controlled study (14 Control and 14). Whole unstimulated saliva was used for measuring Cortisol and IL-1 b levels. Patients with RAS lesions exhibited an elevated salivary cortisol level as against their healthy counterparts. The mean value for salivary cortisol among RAS patients was determined to be 16.2 nM/dL as against the control group which had a mean salivary cortisol of 12 nM/dL. Overall, this study helps provide insights into the correlation of the different biomarkers and RAS patients which can eventually lead to better therapeutic options and prevent recurrence in patients.</p> R. Deepa Viswasini Pratibha Ramani J. Selvaraj ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-25 2021-10-25 189 193 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47A33003 Evaluation of Patient-Oriented Medicines Supply Information on Russian Healthcare Providers’ Websites https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/33005 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To evaluate the Russian Federation healthcare providers’ websites compliance to legal requirements on availability of patient-oriented medicines supply information and compare the evaluation results between public and private healthcare facilities.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Cross-sectional study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The evaluation of compliance to legal requirements to medicines supply information on public and private healthcare providers’ websites available on the Internet was conducted in September 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The study included a simple random sample of 66 websites of Russian healthcare providers containing two groups:&nbsp; public (n=33) and private (n=33) healthcare facilities’ websites. The compliance evaluation was performed by checking the availability of 4 medicines lists on the websites: (1) essential medicines list; (2) list of medicines for the most expensive chronic diseases to treat; (3) list of medicines that are prescribed only by shared decision of healthcare facility medical commission; (4) list of medicines that are dispensed for certain social groups with no charge or with 50% discount in outpatient care settings.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The difference of availability of the first list was 90.9% (95% CI 77.7%–97.4%) vs. 33.3% (95% CI 19.2%–50.3%) on public and private healthcare facilities’ website, respectively, <em>P&lt;.001</em>. The difference of that in the second list was 42.4% (95% CI 26.8%–59.3%) vs. 15.2% (95% CI 6.0%–30.1%), <em>P&lt;.028</em>. For the third no statistical significance was revealed (<em>P&gt;.05</em>). For the fourth list the difference was 66.7% (95% CI 49.7%–80.8%) vs. 21.2% (95% CI 10.0%–37.2%), <em>P&lt;.001</em>.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It is required to improve the supervision approaches for both public and private healthcare facilities for better patient-oriented medicines supply information provision. The problem may be solved by the implementation of a centralized government policy repository with regularly updated lists, requirements, and best practices.</p> Nikita V. Polukhin Natalia V. Ekkert Mikhail V. Vodolagin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-25 2021-10-25 202 211 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47A33005 A Systematic Review on the Role of Topical Corticosteroids for the Management of Radiation Dermatitis https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/32984 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Radiation dermatitis (RD) is a widespread complication of radiation therapy; however, there is still no agreement on the best treatment. The goal of this review is to go over how corticosteroids work throughout the treatment of radiation dermatitis.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>A comprehensive evaluation of randomized controlled trials, retrospective and prospective studies involving topical corticosteroid (TC) for the treatment of radiation dermatitis. A thorough search was carried out in Medline, Embase, the Cochrane library, Clinical trials.gov, and Google scholar. The original search took place in August and was updated on September 2021. There were no restrictions on terminology or dates. Two reviewers independently examined each of the listed papers. A search of the relevant studies of all of the mentioned publications yielded additional papers.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>We identified 19 studies on the role of corticosteroids for the prevention of radiation therapy. All the papers were published between 2001 and 2021. The total sample size of the included studies was 1974 with a mean sample size of 103.89. Among the included studies, four studies (21.05 %) represented head and neck cancer, 14 studies (73.68 %) were regarding breast cancer and 1 (5.26 %) hospital-based cross-sectional study represented multiple malignancies such as head and neck, breast and cervix carcinoma, respectively. Among all the participants, 1696 (85.91 %) were females while 278 (14.08 %) were males.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Prophylactic treatment with TC was found to minimize the rate of RD and wet desquamation. Participants who used topical steroids reported improved symptoms and a higher quality of life, whereas the use of topical steroids during radiation had few side effects. ARD can be prevented using topical corticosteroids, based on these findings. As a result, further research must be done on the most effective TC to utilize during radiation.</p> Hyder Osman Mirghani Abdulmajeed Faisal Albalawi Nawal Mohammed Alanazi Dina Nasser Abusabir Abrar Marwan Alamrani Wejdan Mohammed Alshehri Omar Abdullah Alsayari Hasan Mohssen Alabbadi Abdulrahman Mousa Aljohani Anas Sulaiman Aljohani Raghad Essam Abdullah Mohammed Abdulrahman Alshuhayeb Renad Abdulwahab Al Gaedy Hassan Sulaiman Alahmadi Ali Marwan Bahabri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-23 2021-10-23 1 11 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47A32984 Eradication of Malaria: Present Situations and New Strategies https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/32986 <p>Malaria is a serious disease caused by the protozoon parasite <em>Plasmodium</em> and transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito as a vector.&nbsp; <em>P. falciparum</em> is the gravest infection for all other species <em>P. ovale</em>, <em>P. vivax</em>, <em>P. Malariae</em> and <em>P. knowlesi </em>in terms of morbidity or mortality, which is why most research focused on <em>P. falciparum</em>. The disease affects about 300-500 million people, mostly in the tropics. In regions with a weak economic downturn in tropical and subtropical capital, morbidity and mortality have elevated. Malaria remains a persistent threat in recent research. At the beginning of the 20th century, scientists tried to describe a successful way of eradicating malaria.&nbsp; However, the presence of drug resistance and social and environmental problems, no acceptable and positive future solution has been pointed out. Several studies have highlighted the need to establish advanced nano-biotechnology treatment, novel anti-malarial drug targets, an efficient malaria vaccine technique, and <em>Anopheles</em> gene editing, which opened the door to a healthy, environmentally friendly malaria treatment method over the last two decades. In recent years, the use of mosquito microbiota has shown great potential for cutting down the transmission of mosquito-borne pathogens. This review aims to cover important issues in malarial eradication as rapid diagnostic technology, novel anti-malarial drug targets, <em>Anopheles</em> gene editing, use of mosquito microbiota, and recent vaccines.</p> Muslimah N. Alsulami ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-23 2021-10-23 17 37 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47A32986 Bone Deformity due to Rickets and Osteomalacia in Children and Adolescents https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/32989 <p>Rickets is a worldwide bone disease that is associated with disorders of calcium and phosphate homeostasis and can lead to short stature and joint deformities. Osteomalacia is a major metabolic bone disease that results from a chronic and severe deficiency of vitamin D or phosphate from any cause after growth has stopped. A deficiency of vitamin D or phosphate leads to defective bone mineralization and generalized or localized vague bone pain in various parts of the skeleton and / or proximal muscle weakness. Rickets and osteomalacia are two different clinical diseases with impaired bone mineralization. Rickets occurs throughout the growing skeleton in infants and children, while osteomalacia occurs in adults after fusion of the growth plates. Rickets and osteomalacia are increasingly common in Saudi Arabia, with vitamin D deficiency being the most common etiological cause. Early skeletal deformities can occur in infants, such as soft, thin skull bones, a condition known as craniotabes. In adults, as a result of demineralization, the bones become less rigid (soft bone) with pathological fractures. The diagnosis of both diseases is based on the medical history and physical examination, radiological characteristics, and biochemical tests. Management depends on the underlying etiology.</p> Awadh Saeed Alqahtani Hayazi Mohammed Alshehri Nazim Faisal Ahmed Mohammed Hassan Alatawi Wurud Muteb D. Alshammari Ahmed SaeedAlshahrani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-25 2021-10-25 59 65 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47A32989 Oxidative Modification of Lipoproteins: A Potential Role of Oxidized Small dense LDL in Enhanced Atherogenicity https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/32997 <p>Atherosclerosis (AS) is a multifaceted inflammatory syndrome of the arterial wall to which number of mediators have been implicated in lesion progression. Triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins consist of the large diversity of lipoprotein particles that fluctuate in density, size, and apolipoprotein composition. Two foremost phenotypes, on basis of size, chemical configuration, and density, of low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) have been recognized i.e., pattern A, having LDL diameter greater than 25.5nm (large buoyant LDL or lb-LDL) and pattern B, having LDL diameter less than or equal to 25.5nm (small-dense LDL or sd-LDL). Small-dense low-density-lipoprotein (sd-LDL) particles are produced by potential intravascular hydrolysis of TG-rich VLDL particles via lipoprotein lipases (LPLs), hepatic lipases (HLs) and cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP). sd-LDL is more atherogenic due to its smaller size, increased penetration into the arterial wall, extended plasma half-life, lesser binding affinity for LDL receptors (LDL-R) as well as lower resistance to oxidative stress when equated with lb-LDL. The higher atherogenic potential of sd-LDL is due to its enhanced susceptibility to oxidation, owing to high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), low cholesterol and Apoprotein B (ApoB) content. An enhanced understanding of sd-LDL metabolism at the molecular level, transport and clearance may result in the development of sd-LDL as an independent predictive marker for AS events and may be used to maintain cholesterol homeostasis and prevent the succession of AS.</p> Mohammed Alsaweed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-25 2021-10-25 118 140 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47A32997 Ancient Concept of Simulation in Perspective of Ayurveda https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/33002 <p><em>Ayurveda</em>, the native healthcare system of India, is a rich resource of well-documented ancient medical knowledge. Although the roots of this knowledge date back to the <em>Vedic</em> and post-<em>Vedic</em> eras, it is generally believed that a dedicated branch for healthcare was gradually established approximately between 400 BC and 200 AD.</p> <p>Objective of this review is to hint at preliminary understanding of ancient concept of simulation and to record the Ayurveda as trailblazer when reviewing the mile stone in the history of simulation. Literature regading simulation were collected through various search engeens like as PubMed, Medline, Google scholar. Classical text of Ayurveda Charak, Sushrut, Vagbhat and Chakrapani, Dalhan commentary were reffered to collect ancient view of simulation. Literature available was analysed critically. It was found that preliminary concept of simulation hinted in Ayurveda as imblaze in establishing the basic concept of simulation.</p> Tawalare Kiran Chavan Sucheta Tawalare Kalpana Meshram Sumedh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-25 2021-10-25 182 188 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47A33002 A Mini-Review: Nanoparticles as Vaccine Delivery System https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/33004 <p>Vaccination has proven to be one of the most important medical breakthroughs in history. Three important features must be present in every vaccine that is effective over time: Safety, stability, and the ability to elicit a sustained and sufficient immune response with a modest number of doses are all important requirements. To develop protective immunity against diseases, vaccinations using attenuated or dead entire animals (first generation), subunit vaccines (second generation), and RNA or DNA vaccines (third generation) have all been employed . Traditional vaccines, on the other hand, have issues such as returning to their virulent condition or only giving protection for a short period of time. As a result of these limitations, scientists have resorted to recombinant proteins, such as subunit vaccines, which target a specific portion of the pathogen. Subunit vaccines are preferred over live or inactivated whole organism vaccines because they are more pure and identified with respect to cell receptoes, have a better safety profile, and are easier to scale up. Despite their advantages, subunit vaccinations have certain disadvantages. For example, most antigens are only mildly immunogenic on their own, necessitating the inclusion of an adjuvant in the formulation.</p> Saade Abdalkareem Jasim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-25 2021-10-25 194 201 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47A33004 Overview on Cardiac Cirrhosis and Congestive Hepatopathy - A Review https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/33006 <p>Cardiac cirrhosis (congestive hepatopathy) refers to a group of hepatic abnormalities that develop as a result of right-sided heart failure.&nbsp; Cirrhosis of the liver can be induced by any right-sided pathology that leads to right-sided heart failure, which leads to increased venous congestion and pressure in the hepatic sinusoids. Because cardiac cirrhosis might be asymptomatic or diagnosed incorrectly due to other types of liver disease, determining its prevalence is difficult. The underlying heart disease, rather than the hepatic congestion and damage, is usually the cause of death in cardiac cirrhosis. The control of the underlying cardiac disease, as well as the optimization of cardiac output, are the mainstays of congestive hepatopathy treatment. Diuresis can help with hepatic congestion, but it must be used with caution to avoid causing hepatic ischemia. Hemodynamic therapy may be able to reverse the early stages of congestive hepatitis. The widespread use of heart transplantation (HT) and considerable breakthroughs in medical and surgical treatments have drastically altered the profile of CH patients. In this overview we will be looking at the disease cause, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment.</p> Mohammed Salah Hussein Sarah Jamal Almujil Ahmed Saeed S. Banheem Nasser Naif Alsuhaymi Mansour Hemaid Alhelali Dhiyaa Hassan A. Aldukhi Khalil Rafed B. Alsaedi Naif Mohammed Al-Wagdani Ebtesam Ali S. Almadi Khalid Mohammed A. Aladhadh Fahad A. M. R. H. AlAjmi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-25 2021-10-25 212 220 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47A33006