Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-9119)</strong> is dedicated to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JPRI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all areas of pharmaceutical Science including pharmaceutical drugs, community pharmacy, hospital pharmacy, clinical pharmacy, compounding pharmacy, consultant pharmacy, internet pharmacy, veterinary pharmacy, nuclear pharmacy, military pharmacy, pharmacy informatics, pharmaceutics, medicinal chemistry, pharmacognosy, pharmacotherapy, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical pharmacology, neuropharmacology, psychopharmacology, pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics, pharmacoepidemiology, toxicology, theoretical pharmacology, posology, pharmacognosy, behavioral pharmacology, environmental pharmacology, medicine development and safety testing, drug legislation and safety, pharmaceutical microbiology, pharmaceutical molecular biology, pharmaceutical biotechnology.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International 2456-9119 Curcumin: Natural Antimicrobial and Anti Inflammatory Agent <p>The pursuance of novel antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents has been expanding due to a significant need for more efficient pharmacotherapy of various infections and chronic diseases. During the last decade, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and pharmacological properties of curcumin have been extensively studied. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of curcumin against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as its antifungal activity by using <em>in vitro </em>agar well diffusion assay. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin was determined with <em>in vitro</em> assay of inhibition of protein denaturation. Results demonstrated wide antimicrobial activity of curcumin upon all of the test bacteria and fungi. The strongest activity of curcumin was observed at a concentration of 0.50 mg/ml against <em>S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans,</em> resulting in a maximum zone of inhibition of 14.7 mm, 14.3 mm, 13.7 mm, 10.7 mm and 10.7 mm, respectively. Findings suggested that the antimicrobial activity of curcuminis dependent upon the concentrations. Furthermore, results demonstrated high effectiveness of curcumin compared to standard acetylsalicylic acid in inhibiting heat-induced protein denaturation, which activity is also depended upon the concentrations. The present study emphasises the potential application of curcumin as a natural antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent. However, findings of this study are restricted to <em>in vitro</em> assays and consideration should be given to conducting a study involving wider dose range test substances as well as including further research on <em>in vivo</em> models.</p> Pehlivanović Belma Čaklovica Kenan Lagumdžija Dina Omerović Naida Žiga Smajić Nermina Škrbo Selma Bečić Fahir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-23 2021-01-23 1 8 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4331060 Emotional Intelligence and its Relationship to Leadership, Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Pharmacy Students, Makkah, Saudi Arabia <p><strong>Background: </strong>Emotional Intelligence (EI) is the capability of an individual to recognize his own and others’ emotions. The current study was conducted to describe the EI and its relation to leadership, stress, anxiety, and depression among pharmacy students at Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional study was conducted among pharmacy students enrolled in the Faculty of Pharmacy at Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, during the educational year 2018/2019. A standardized data collection sheet was used. It inquired about personal and socio-demographic data, habits, general life satisfaction, and the academic stress. It contained also the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (SSREI) scale, Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), and the authentic leadership questionnaires. Descriptive, inferential statistics and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 400 pharmacy students enrolled in the study. Their mean age was 21.61± 1.45 years. The total EI score (mean ± SD) was 118.42± 14.60. The predictors of the overall EI score were students' high leadership score (&gt;48), general life satisfaction, and physical activity. EI was positively correlated with the authentic leadership scale and negatively correlated to DASS.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Pharmacy students at UQU have above average EI score. Higher EI was positively associated with better leadership capacity and higher EI was negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and stress levels. Physical activity is an important EI predictor.</p> Rahaf Nabeel Alaaddin Nahla Khamis Ibrahim Mai Kadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-23 2021-01-23 9 21 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4331061 Active Compound and Heavy Metals in Bleaching Creams and Their Health Effects: A Review <p>For a long time, it could be found that appearance enhancement products fell into the cosmetic category. Therefore, more people want to appear beautiful, thus the desire to appear beautiful has been urgent since the early days. Skincare products, hair, perfumes, oral care, and nail products are used by women despite their containment of toxic chemicals harmful to health in a society that wants to look its best because it is a beauty freak. Different toxic components and dangerous chemicals utilized in cosmetics are integrated beyond acceptable limits. These heavy metals may reason dangerous sick influences on the skin causing carcinogenicity. Therefore, it begins to be a requirement for people to turn out having knowledge of the different dangers of heavy metals utilized in cosmetics.</p> Faten M. Ali Zainy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-23 2021-01-23 22 33 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4331063