Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-9119)</strong> is dedicated to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JPRI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all areas of pharmaceutical Science including pharmaceutical drugs, community pharmacy, hospital pharmacy, clinical pharmacy, compounding pharmacy, consultant pharmacy, internet pharmacy, veterinary pharmacy, nuclear pharmacy, military pharmacy, pharmacy informatics, pharmaceutics, medicinal chemistry, pharmacognosy, pharmacotherapy, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical pharmacology, neuropharmacology, psychopharmacology, pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics, pharmacoepidemiology, toxicology, theoretical pharmacology, posology, pharmacognosy, behavioral pharmacology, environmental pharmacology, medicine development and safety testing, drug legislation and safety, pharmaceutical microbiology, pharmaceutical molecular biology, pharmaceutical biotechnology.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International 2456-9119 Association of dupA, iceA, homB Genes of Helicobacter pylori with Gastritis, Peptic Ulcer Disease and Gastric Cancer <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the association of dupA, iceA, homB genes of <em>Helicobacter pylori</em> with gastro-duodenal diseases such as gastritis, peptic ulcer disease PUD and gastric cancer.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted at Gastroenterology Department, Shaikh Zayed Hospital Lahore. Patients with gastro-duodenal diseases and positive <em>H. pylori</em> were included. Gastric biopsies were taken from fundus, body and antrum. <em>H. pylori</em> DNA were removed utilizing Gentra DNA extraction Kit (Life Technologies, USA) as per the technique and Qualitative PCR for the recognition of <em>H. Pylori</em> DNA. The PCR primers sets were designed for the specific detection of dupA, iceA and homB genes of <em>H. pylori</em>. All the data was recorded in proforma and analyzed by SPSS version 20.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Mean age of the cases was 41.22<u>+</u>8.04 years. Males were more affected 118(60.2%). HomB was the most common 76(38.8%) followed by dupA and iceA 28.6% and 24.5% respectively. Peptic ulcer disease and gastritis were higher among patients having dup A and iceA positive strains as compared to homB gene patients, while gastric cancer was significantly higher among HomB gene infected patients, p-values were quite significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It was concluded that homB gene was most frequent in <em>H. pylori</em> infected population. Peptic ulcer disease and gastritis are markedly associated with dupA and iceA genes, while homB gene infected patients are at high risk of gastric cancer.</p> Muhammad Akram Bajwa Muhammad Idrees Prem Kumar Maheshwari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-20 2020-10-20 1 6 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2530818 Effect of Grape Seed Extract in Minimizing the Harmful Effects of Monosodium Glutamate on the Chicken Embryonic Retina to Show Scientific Miracles In the Holy Quran <p>In 1969, a Canadian laboratory announced that its studies on synthetic alkaline (cyclamate) proved to be a carcinogen despite its use for more than twenty years in the beverage industry. There are many additives that have raised the controversy about the large extent of safety to consumers and the most famous controversy and consumption is the article of monosodium glutamate (MSG) which touched research on the negative impact on samples of research experiments. This research aims to study the effect (MSG) on the formation of retina in chicken embryos and the potential improvement effects of GSE grape seed extracts during incubation as part of the solutions provided in the event of the long term use of MSG and its accumulation in the body Human. The experimental groups were divided into 4 groups based on the injection period and the injected substances. The first control group(Injected with saline), the second group, treated with&nbsp; MSG, the 3<sup>rd</sup> group were treated with Monosoudim glutamate and grape seed extract at days 0,1 of incubation, whereas the 4<sup>th</sup>group,was treated with MSG and then the GSE (M – G) were given at3,4 days post MSG . The effect of the experimental materials on the development of the retina at the age of 14 was investigated in the current work. The results showed that the treatment of embryos with MSG dose (0.1 ml) caused many of the abnormalities at the level of tissue formation of the retina, and after the treatment of the fetus with GSE was noted to reduce the damage to the tissue of the retina. The results showed that the treatment of embryos with MSG dose (0.1 ml) caused many of the abnormalities at the level of tissue form of the retina, and after the treatment of the fetus with GSE was noted to reduce the damage to the tissue of the retina.</p> Fawzya Al- Gamdi Nouf Al- Harbi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-20 2020-10-20 7 18 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2530819 Future Perspectives of Biomimetics in Restorative Dentistry <p>The main goal of tooth restoration aims at achieving mineralization of initial enamel and dentinal lesions in native form.&nbsp; Most of the restorative materials and remineralization adjuvants for enamel and dentin mineralization are evidenced in the literature. Although commercially available restorative materials exhibit superior esthetics, mechanical properties and cost effectiveness, durability of the restoration threatened by the occurrence of inadequate strength, long-term solubility, and weaker adhesion to tooth and accelerated degradation after being bonded to tooth structure. Recently, the role of biomimetic science in restorative dentistry aims at creating a restoration that can be highly compatible with the structural, functional and biologic properties of dental tissues to reproduce and emulate the original performance of the intact tooth with high durability. In order to recover the prismatic structure in mineral-depleted enamel and to achieve interfibrillar mineralization in dentin, non-collagenous protein analogues have been proposed as templates for apatite deposition. Biomimetic analogues must be necessary to achieve functional mineralization and to recover the dynamic mechanical properties of teeth. The use of these analogues associated with ion-releasing materials seems to be a promising approach for both enamel and dentin remineralization. This review enlightens the current and future perspectives of biomimetic analogues used for enamel and dentin remineralization as the clinical translation of this biomimetic research can be considered as the boon to restorative dentistry.</p> Nazwin Basheer Manavalan Madhana Madhubala Sekar Mahalaxmi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-20 2020-10-20 19 28 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2530820 Olive Oil Based Organogels for Effective Topical Delivery of Fluconazole: In-vitro Antifungal Study <p>The objective of the study was to formulate olive oil based organogels for the topical application of fluconazole (FLZ), to ensure the efficient delivery of the drug deeper in to the skin layers.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><strong>:</strong> Nine formulations developed by hot-melt method using olive oil, sorbitan monostearate (SMS) and FLZ. Prepared formulations characterized for macro evaluations, pH, spreadibility, viscosity, gel-sol transition, <em>in-vitro</em> diffusion study. Further optimized formulation evaluated for <em>ex-vivo</em> percutaneous permeation, <em>in-vitro</em> antifungal studies and stability studies by similarity index. <strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong> The results of evaluated parameters ensure the stability and effectiveness of the prepared olive oil based organogels. <em>In-vitro</em> diffusion studied reflects decrease in drug release with increase in surfactant concentration due to increase in viscosity. Moreover, <em>ex-vivo</em> permeation studies revealed that the permeation of FLZ was enhanced for optimized formulations (F6) as compared to the marketed gel formulation. Further, the optimized formulation exhibits the broad zone of inhibition against fungal strains in comparison to control and marketed product during <em>in-vitro </em>antifungal study.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> The olive oil based organogels formulation shown the enhanced permeation of FLZ from organogel network structure with good antifungal activity as compared to the marketed formulation. Henceforth, the FLZ organogel formulations could be used topically for the effective treatment of fungal infection.</p> Mohammad Muqtader Ahmed Farhat Fatima Abdul Bari Mohammed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-20 2020-10-20 29 36 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2530821 An Exploratory Study of Consumers’ Social Behavior towards Role of Malaysian Community Pharmacists in Providing Healthcare <p><strong>Aims:</strong> Consumers’ awareness, perceptions, expectations and experiences are integral components of their satisfaction towards the quality of care provided by community pharmacists. This study aims to assess consumers’ awareness, perceptions, expectations and experiences about the role of Malaysian community pharmacists in providing healthcare.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:&nbsp; </strong>Cross-sectional study.</p> <p><strong>Place of Study:</strong>&nbsp; Penang state in the north of Malaysia.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A survey was carried out by conveniently selecting the consumers patronizing the community pharmacies.&nbsp; A pretested and validated survey tool with different domains (Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.577 to 0.774) was used. Descriptive and inferential statistics (Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests) were used for analyzing the data using SPSS program, Version 26.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp; Of the total 424 questionnaires distributed, 195 (46%) were returned and usable.&nbsp; The median age of the consumers was 30 (IQR = 28-38).&nbsp; Majority of them were female, Chinese, living in urban area and having a bachelor degree. The mean awareness score was 8.39 (± 2.00), mean perception score was 2.95 (± 0.83), mean expectation score was 3.70 (± 0.13), and mean experience score was 3.17 (± 0.97). Trusting a pharmacist’s advice about medicines was significantly associated with the consumer’s age (<em>p</em>= 0.030). age of the consumers was a significant determinant in their perception of community pharmacists suggestions about the use of certain prescription medicines to patients and physicians (<em>p </em>= .001 and <em>p </em>= 0.014, successively).&nbsp; The strongly anticipated that community pharmacists should monitor responses to drug therapy and &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;be more concerned with the patient rather than being profit-oriented (medians = 5 and 4, respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp; The consumers in this study were aware of the role of community pharmacists in community pharmacies and healthcare settings.&nbsp; They also reported high perception, expectation and positive experience with the community pharmacists.</p> Alamin Hassan Mohamed Alamin Alabid Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim Mohamed Azmi Hassali Subish Palaian ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-20 2020-10-20 37 51 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2530822 18β-glycyrrhetinic Acid Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in HPV18+ HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells <p><strong>Aims:</strong> In recent years, natural products have received great attention to cancer prevention owing to their various health benefits, lack of toxicity, and side effects. Accumulating evidence shows that 18<em>β</em>-glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA) has antiproliferative and apoptotic activities on many cancer cell lines, while its role in cervical cancer remains unknown. Thus, the current research was &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;conducted to illustrate GRA's cytotoxic effect against the HeLa cell line of HPV18 + human cervical cancer.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The effect of GRA on HeLa cell line was tested by MTT and Trypan blue dye exclusion assay. Cell cycle analysis was carried out by flow cytometry after PI staining. Apoptosis was assessed after annexin V / PI double staining by flow cytometry. The Caspase activation assay kit analysed caspase activation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured by fluorimeter after DCFDA dye staining.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Results of the current study have shown that GRA exposure significantly inhibited the cell viability of HeLa cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. GRA induced growth arrest of HeLa cells at G<sub>0</sub>/G<sub>1</sub> phase of the cell cycle. Moreover, GRA's antiproliferative action was mediated through apoptosis, as evident from caspase-3 and -9 activation. Caspase inhibitors blocked the GRA-induced caspase activation and ameliorated the GRA-induced cytotoxicity. This suggested the role of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis stimulated by GRA.&nbsp; The intracellular ROS generation assay showed a dose-related increment in ROS production induced by GRA. Co-culturing of HeLa cells with <em>N</em>-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a ROS inhibitor, completely abrogated GRA-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Thus, the effect of NAC suggested the involvement of intracellular ROS in the GRA-induced cytotoxicity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In summary, GRA exhibited strong antiproliferative and apoptotic properties and, thus, could act as an adjunct in the prevention and management of cervical cancer.</p> Mohd Saeed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-23 2020-10-23 52 66 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2530823 Cytokine Storm, Corticosteroids and İnterleukin-6 Receptor Antibodies in Context of Antiinflammatory Treatment in COVID-19 <p>It is well established that cytokine storm is associated with more severe clinical course of COVID-19. Many clinical findings of COVID-19 and other severe viral infections (e.g. fever, muscle pain, respiratory distress, cough), are directly attributed to cytokine storm. For example, IL-6 and IL-10 can be used as predictors for expedient diagnosis of patients with higher risk of deterioration. Hyper-inflammatory status in patients with severe COVID-19 is to be mitigated to alleviate signs and symptoms in cytokine storm. In case of deterioration of oxygenation and rapid progression of imaging (CT) findings, glucocorticoids can be used for a short time (3-5 days) for patients in whom overactivation of the body's inflammatory response is suspected. On the other hand, interleukin-6 receptor antibodies tocilizumab, sarilumab, siltuximab can be used as immunomodulators, to suppress inflammation and to alleviate fever and other manifestations of immune response. Their beneficial efficacy is especially remarkable during the cytokine storm period. It should be kept in mind that the agents to be used in the management of any given patient should be tailored for each situation.</p> Ozgur Karcioglu Goksu Afacan Bilgen Ozkaya Ebru Yilmaz Eylem Ersan Selman Yeniocak Mandana Hosseinzadeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-26 2020-10-26 67 75 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2530824