Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-9119)</strong> is dedicated to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JPRI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all areas of pharmaceutical Science including pharmaceutical drugs, community pharmacy, hospital pharmacy, clinical pharmacy, compounding pharmacy, consultant pharmacy, internet pharmacy, veterinary pharmacy, nuclear pharmacy, military pharmacy, pharmacy informatics, pharmaceutics, medicinal chemistry, pharmacognosy, pharmacotherapy, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical pharmacology, neuropharmacology, psychopharmacology, pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics, pharmacoepidemiology, toxicology, theoretical pharmacology, posology, pharmacognosy, behavioral pharmacology, environmental pharmacology, medicine development and safety testing, drug legislation and safety, pharmaceutical microbiology, pharmaceutical molecular biology, pharmaceutical biotechnology.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International 2456-9119 Effectiveness of Turmeric and Extra Virgin Olive Oil in the Management of IL 6 and IL 10 in Healthy Mice https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/32134 <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>:</strong> Anti-Inflammatory properties of turmeric and extra virgin olive oil have numerous health benefits. They exert and promote anti-inflammatory actions, moreover, each gives benefits that go beyond reducing inflammation.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>:</strong> The aim of our study is to evaluate and compare the immunomodulatory effect of each turmeric and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) alone or in combination.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><strong>:</strong> We demonstrated the serum level of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 in healthy male Swiss albino mice (C57BL/6 strain) after oral intake of curcumin and extra virgin olive oil for six weeks by ELISA assay.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: </strong>Our results showed that dietary intake of turmeric and EVOO had a reducing effect on serum IL-6 level and could increase the production of IL-10 level significantly. Inflammatory responses of turmeric and EVOO combination appear to be more effective on health by inhibition of IL 6 and induce IL 10 production.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Anti-inflammatory effect of turmeric and EVOO can play an important role in modulating the level of IL 6 and IL-10.<strong>&nbsp;</strong>Moreover, co-administration of them having a greater anti-inflammatory effect.&nbsp;</p> Sama Mohammed Attiyah Hoda Elsayed Mohammed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-28 2021-07-28 9 16 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32134 Comorbidities: A Decider of Severe Clinical Outcomes in COVID-19 Patients https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/32133 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Comorbidity is the biggest decider in COVID-19 pandemic whether the infected person will develop the severe clinical outcome or not. It is one of the few conclusions that has widespread acceptance.</p> <p><strong>Summary:</strong>After analyzing the case fatalities of COVID-19, many patients were found to be having either one of many conditions which are commonly called as comorbidities due to which they cannot made it to survivors list. Also several COVID-19 patients requiring the sophisticated medical attention like ventilators and oxygen support system have any kind of underlying medical condition. Deteriorated immune system is one of the reasons behind slipping into severe symptoms category.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It is established that comorbidities are the major influencer in COVID-19 infected patients. More study is needed to further segregate the data on the basis of each comorbidity.</p> Rahul Agrawal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-28 2021-07-28 1 8 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32133 Exploring the Pathogenic Role of Stress in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and its Management https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/32135 <p>Every organism is constantly adapting to changes happening in the environment.&nbsp; This adaptation helps in maintaining homeostasis.&nbsp; All organisms must adapt at molecular, cellular, physiological, and behavioral levels.&nbsp; Amongst many factors which act as a threat to homeostasis, one of them is stress.&nbsp; The organism has to bring about both physiological and behavioral changes.&nbsp; The various researches in recent years have shown that adverse life events, along with chronic stress, and depression leads to increased likelihood of relapse in patients with quiescent IBD. Many studies of experimental stress in animal models of colitis support this. Till date, the therapeutic successes of stress reduction therapies have not been explored largely.&nbsp; This is also due to methodological difficulties in going ahead with such studies.&nbsp; This paper tries to explore the recent researches in enhancing our understanding of the pathogenic role played by psychological stress in inflammatory bowel disease and focuses our attention on the need for controlled studies on the curative prospective of stress reduction therapies for IBD.</p> Shaini Suraj Anand Prakash Pratibha Dawande Obaid Noman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-28 2021-07-28 17 22 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32135 Overview of the Presentation and Updated Management of Sinusitis https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/32136 <p>Acute and chronic sinusitis are common primary care presentations. They are caused by mucosal inflammation, which inhibits mucociliary function of the nose and paranasal sinuses. Because it affects the mucous membranes that line both the nose and the sinuses, the complete medical word for sinusitis is "rhinosinusitis". Sinusitis is usually caused by a viral upper respiratory tract infection, with bacterial sinusitis occurring in about 2% of cases, yet in most cases overall antibiotics are being used and prescribed which is in most part are not needed, and cases often resolves without antibiotics need, most general practitioners rely on clinical findings to make the diagnosis. Watchful waiting and symptom treatment with nasal oxymetazoline, pseudoephedrine, and saline nasal irrigation are recommended. In this paper, we overview the presentation and management of sinusitis.</p> Khaled Abdullah S. Alasmari Lena Defallah G. Alzahrani Sultan Suliman Q. Al-ruwaili Rahaf Naif A. Alenezi Sarah Fahad M. Bukhari Sarah Muqbil B. Altmimi Shaden Akram A. Alanazi Lama Muaysh M. Aljohani Alshaymaa Akram A. Alanazi Afnan Mohammed H. Almutairi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-28 2021-07-28 23 30 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32136 A Review Article on the Relation between Anxiety and Depression https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/32137 <p>Anxiety depression is the commonest phenomena in preponderant population. Many individuals might have experience it and still not know, very often in a state of constant denial and negligence with the fact knowingly. The causes can vary from psychological, physiological and traumatic past experiences. This article incorporate studies of anxietydepression and their relationship and causes. Anxiety depression are the most common psychological disorder. Their relationship is very baffling, their symptoms overlaps with each other. There are many causes for it physiological, psychological, behavioural, insomnia, or due to past trauma. Physical exercise reduces the symptoms of mild anxiety and depression.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Ayushi Meshram Rakesh Kumar Jha Parikshit Muley ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-28 2021-07-28 31 34 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32137 Age-related Macular Degeneration: Simple Review https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/32138 <p>Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common, chronic, and innovative degenerative disease of the macula that affects the elderly, with significant loss of imagination and foresight due to abnormalities within the photoreceptor, retinal pigment epithelium, Bruch's membrane, and the choroidal complex. AMD is currently being elucidated through molecular dissection of histopathological samples and genetic coupling. Threat factors for AMD can be broadly based on character elements (e.g. age, gender, race / ethnicity, heredity, and socioeconomic reputation) and environmental factors (e.g. consumption and alcohol consumption). Signs and signs of AMD are: Druids. This is one of the early symptoms and symptoms of AMD and the presence of neovascularization in the macula in humid conditions. Form of AMD A medical examination is usually sufficient for the installation of an AMD analysis, but the use of additional examinations such as fundus vehicle fluorescence, optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography and inexperienced angiography with indocyanine for diffuse macular anomalies makes sense. unimaginative and prophetic cure cases can help.</p> Abdulaziz Saeed A. Alghamdi Abeer Ahmed Al Mutairi Afaf Mahal R. Alanazi Asrar Awad M. almutairi Mei Khalid S. Alfaqiri Sultan Suliman Q. Al-Ruwaili Faisal Saeed A. Al-Ghamdi Sarah Fahad M. Bukhari Arwa Mohammed Alrefai Aljuhani Lina Mohammed Aljohani Sarah Mohammad M. Ali Sarah Abdulla A. Bukhamsin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-28 2021-07-28 35 40 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32138 Alzheimer's Disease: History, Stages, Diagnosis and Its Future https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/32139 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Alzheimer’s is a brain disease in which brain cells responsible for memory loss and other intellectual functions starts to die. It can also be said that there is a loss of connections in nerve cells of brain. Although scientists have not yet found out the main underlying cause of this disease, there are several other factors that have been studied which leads to alzheimer’s. Some of them include tangling of TAU protein, plaques formed by amyloid, shrinkage in brain tissue etc. It is the 6<sup>th</sup> leading cause of death in US and 3<sup>rd</sup> in older people. It was discovered by a psychiatrist Alzheimer’s, who researched on a patient Auguste D. He noticed dementia, aggressiveness and some other mental illness in her and then studied her brain after her death. Alzheimer’s is asymptomatic in early stages, that is why we cannot start the treatment in early stage. The disease can be identified once a person start getting symptoms. But until then the damage has already begun and progressed. We do not have a cure for this disease yet. It can only be delayed by treating the symptoms and by therapy. But the scientists are carrying out different clinical trials such as detangling of TAU protein etc to make this disease fully curable.</p> Urvi Jiwtode Swarupa Chakole Neha Bhatt ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-28 2021-07-28 41 45 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39A32139