Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-9119)</strong> is dedicated to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JPRI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all areas of pharmaceutical Science including pharmaceutical drugs, community pharmacy, hospital pharmacy, clinical pharmacy, compounding pharmacy, consultant pharmacy, internet pharmacy, veterinary pharmacy, nuclear pharmacy, military pharmacy, pharmacy informatics, pharmaceutics, medicinal chemistry, pharmacognosy, pharmacotherapy, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical pharmacology, neuropharmacology, psychopharmacology, pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics, pharmacoepidemiology, toxicology, theoretical pharmacology, posology, pharmacognosy, behavioral pharmacology, environmental pharmacology, medicine development and safety testing, drug legislation and safety, pharmaceutical microbiology, pharmaceutical molecular biology, pharmaceutical biotechnology.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International en-US Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International 2456-9119 Comparative Evaluation of Dexmedetomidine, Ketamine & their Combination for Epidural Analgesia in Orthopedic Surgeries of the lower Limb https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/36310 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Epidural anesthesia is a perioperative pain control treatment that has a variety of applications in anaesthesiology. It could be used as as a primary anaesthetic, although it's most usually utilised as an adjuvant for management of pain.&nbsp; It could be a one-time shot or a continuous infusion for a long-drawn therapeutic intervention. Apart from the potential for significant analgesia, its use minimises the need for other anaesthetics and analgesics, lowering the risk of adverse effects. It has also been proven to lower the level of cortisol, to facilitate the resumption of bowel function, reduce the risk of Pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis in the post-operative phase, while minimizing the duration of institutional stays.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Comparison and Evaluation of the effect of the drugs dexmedetomidine , ketamine &amp; them together as a combination in addition to bupivacaine, as an adjuvant for intermittent epidural top ups for lower limb orthopaedic surgeries .</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Prospective observational study.</p> <p><strong>Place and duration of Study:</strong> The study will be conducted over a period of 2 years and 6 months in the department of anaesthesiology, Jawaharlal Nehru medical college and Acharya vinoba bhave rural hospital, wardha.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Our prospective, comparitive observational study included 90 patients randomly assigned into 3 sets of 30 each, one was administered dexmedetomidine epidurally, one was given ketamine and one was given their combination epidurally [1]. The quality and duration of analgesia provided by all 3 groups were then compared to find out which of them provides better and prolonged pain relief. Along with analgesia, the other parameters assessed were hemodynamic response, sedation and any other side effects.</p> <p><strong>Expected Results:</strong> We're attempting to establish the hypothesis that the combination of both the drugs is better than dexmedetomidine or ketamine administered individually. It has been proved in various researches that epidural ketamine prolonged the duration of analgesia, [2] but it was less than epidural dexmedetomidine. We expect that the combination would decrease the postoperative rescue analgesics requirements and less hemodynamic alterations hence providing greater patient satisfaction as compared to the two drugs separately.</p> Deeksha Mishra Vivek Chakole ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 52 58 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i43A36310 GC-MS Analysis of the Bioactive Compounds in Aqueous Ethanol, Dichloromethane, and n-hexane Extracts of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) Seed https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/36305 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The study analysed the bioactive compounds (BACs) present in aqueous ethanol, dichloromethane, and n-hexane extracts of pumpkin (<em>Cucurbita pepo)</em> using Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The dried grounded seed <em>C. pepo</em> were successively extracted using the three solvents and GC-MS analysis was performed to identify the differential quantitative BACs in the extracts of <em>C. pepo</em> seeds.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The GC-MS results revealed the presence of 5, 22, and 17 for aqueous ethanol, dichloromethane, and n-hexane extracts respectively. Of the over 434 bioactive compounds present in <em>C. pepo</em>, palmitic, stearic, linoleic compounds and their derivatives were the bioactive compounds found in all three extracts. Scientific evidences suggest that palmitic, stearic, linoleic, barbituric acids, and their derivatives have significant biological effects. Compounds without documented scientific evidence such as Silane, dimethyl(2-methoxyethoxy) octadecylocy-, (22R)-6.alpha., 11.beta., 21 Trihydroxy-16.alpha., 17.alpha.-propylmethylenedioxypregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione, and Galactopyranose, 1,2,3,4,6-pentakis-O-(trimethylsilyl)-, .beta.-d- were found in n-hexane extract, while 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethyl ester E, Z-1,3,12-Nonadecatriene was found in dichloromethane extract.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Results of this study may provide a foundation for the application of <em>C. pepo</em> in nonclinical setting and the designing of new drug for several clinical purposes.</p> C. F. Anyanwu O. A. Georgewill U. O. Georgewill Eric Aigbogun Jr. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-27 2022-06-27 1 13 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i43A36305 Antagonistic Potential of Lophophora williamsii, Vinca minor and Hydrastis canadensis against Dental Caries Associated Bacteria https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/36307 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Dental caries is a bacterial illness that causes localized disintegration and loss of calcified components in the teeth. Different plant extracts have been used to assess the anti-bacterial activity against the pathogens known to induced dental caries.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The aim of this research is to determine the antibacterial potential of <em>Lophophora williamsii</em>, <em>Vinca minor</em>, and <em>Hydrastis canadensis </em>against dental caries associated bacteria.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of <em>Lophophora williamsii </em>(LW), <em>Vinca minor </em>(VM), and <em>Hydrastis Canadensis </em>(HC) was studied. <em>Streptococcus mutans </em>(<em>S. mutans</em>), <em>Lactobacillus acidophilus </em>(<em>L. acidophilus</em>), <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>(<em>P. aeruginosa</em>), and <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>were the bacteria employed (<em>S. aureus</em>). The disk diffusion method was used to determine the tendency of bacterial strains towards the two extracts.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp; <em>S. pyogenes </em>and <em>S. aureus </em>were the most susceptible bacteria, whereas <em>P. aeruginosa </em>was the least susceptible. The methanol extracts of <em>Vinca minor </em>(VM) and <em>Hydrastis Canadensis </em>(HC) had the highest antibacterial activity against <em>S. pyogenes </em>and <em>S. aureus</em>, whereas the aqueous extract of <em>Lophophora williamsii </em>(LW) had the lowest antibacterial activity against (<em>L. acidophilus</em>) and (<em>L. acidophilus</em>) (<em>P. aeruginosa</em>). Methanolic extracts of almost all materials outperformed aqueous extracts in suppressing pathogenic bacteria growth but were less effective than ciprofloxacin extracts used as positive control<em>s. </em>All of the samples had saponins, according to phytochemical analysi<em>s. Vinca minor </em>and <em>Hydrastis Canadensis </em>had alkaloids, while <em>Lophophora williamsii </em>contained flavonoid<em>s. </em>Only <em>Vinca minor </em>and <em>Hydrastis Canadensis </em>contained tannins, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Methanolic extracts of practically all materials suppressed pathogenic bacteria growth better than aqueous extracts, although not as well as ciprofloxacin extracts used as positive controls. Plant herbal blends have made major contributions to human health and well-being; as a result, plants have long been seen as a source of hope for novel therapeutic compounds.</p> Hafiz Muhammad Ahmad Iftikhar Ali Anila Zaman Muhammad Mansoor Hafeez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-28 2022-06-28 24 36 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i43A36307 Incidence of New-onset Atrial Fibrillation in Patients Presenting with Acute St-elevation Myocardial Infarction https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/36308 <p><strong>Aim: </strong>This study aims to find out the incidence of atrial fibrillation new onset in STEMI patients receiving primary PCI</p> <p><strong>Sample:</strong> A total of 169 patients have included after sample size calculation by using WHO sample size calculator version 2.0.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Descriptive cross-sectional study</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> This study was conducted at the Department of Interventional Cardiology at the National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease (NICVD), Karachi, Pakistan from April 18<sup>th,</sup> 2020, to October 17, 2020.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The inclusion criteria set for data collection were as; all the patients undergoing Primary PCI with age between 40 to 80 years, males and females, patients presented with 12 hours of the onset of chest pain with STEMI to enroll in the study. Whereas, patients who had a previous history of any cardiac-related surgery and known AF, also all the patients suffered AF after trial of cardioversion, and those patients who had ejection fraction less than 20% were excluded from the study.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The demographic classification showed the mean age of the patients was 55.96±8.9 with a CI of 54.60 to 57.33 years. The mean height of the patients was 167.34±0.56 with CI of 166.2 to 168.46. The mean weight of the patients was 74.84±0.7 with CI of 73.39 to 76.29 kg. The average BMI of all the patients was 26.7±0.28 with CI of 26.2 to 27.33. The analysis of the data revealed that Atrial fibrillation is more common in people who don’t smoke tobacco and are non-diabetic. Diabetic patients are less prone to atrial fibrillation in MI.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The prevalence of new-onset of atrial fibrillation was found to be high in elderly age group patients.</p> Kamran Awan Nadeem Javed Khurshed Shaikh Muhammad Hashim Kalwar Muhammad Hassan Butt Gulzar Ali Bashir Ahmed Solangi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-28 2022-06-28 37 44 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i43A36308 Anti-inflammatory, Antipyretic and Analgesic Activities of Ethanol Extract of Seriphidium kurramenses https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/36309 <p><em>Seriphidium kurramenses</em> traditionally medicinal plant usually not present in Pakistan is used in different biological activities to cure various ailments. However, scare studies are present on <em>S. kurramenses</em> regarding to its medicinal importance to treat fever, inflammation and pain. The purpose of present study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effects of <em>S. kurramenses</em> stem and leaves in ethanolic extract on albino rats. Methodi anti-inflammatory actions were evaluated by injecting carrageenan in rats which caused edema. <em>S. kurramenses </em>produced significant (P&lt;0.005) reduction in edema at 200 and 50mg/kg doses with respective percentages (90, 81%) of leaf and stem extract as compared to standard (diclofenac, 90%) and control (normal saline, 100%) groups. Meanwhile, antipyretic activity was examined by inducing brewer’s yeast in albino rats which induced pyrexia. <em>S. kurramenses</em> showed significant reduction (P&lt;0.005) at different doses of ethanolic extract (50mg/kg, 50mg/kg) with respective percentages of leaf (95%) and stem extract (100%) as compared to standard (brewer’s yeast 81%) and control groups (normal saline 100%). Similarly, analgesic test was assessed by injecting acetic acid which induced writhing movements and these movements were reduced (&gt;0.005) at different doses of ethanolic extract (400mg/kg, 400mg/kg) with respective percentages of leaf and stem extracts (52%, 56%) as compared to standard (diclofenac, 48%) and control groups (100%). It is concluded that the extract of <em>S. kurramenses </em>exhibit significant (P&lt;0.005) results in case of anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities but insignificant (&gt;0.005) in analgesic activity.</p> Sobia Alyas Nureen Zahra Ayesha Nisar Tahir Shafeeq Muhammad Mansoor Hafeez Sikandar Hayat Ayesha Riaz Beenish Zahid ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-28 2022-06-28 45 51 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i43A36309 Inhibitory Effect on Hexokinase II by Benzimidazoles and the Insight into Interactions https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/36311 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Benzimidazoles are aromatic, heterocyclic organic molecules which exhibit pharmacological potential as anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, anti-hypertensive, anticancer agent, and anthelmintic treatments. The benzimidazoles could inhibit human hexokinase II, which is a critical factor in the glycolysis pathway in humans.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Autodock analyses were performed for the initial docking between human hexokinase II and benzimidazoles. To determine the IC<sub>50</sub> values by benzimidazole compounds, hexokinase enzyme assay was executed using continuous colorimetric detection. In addition, the insight into binding interactions was revealed primarily by Gromacs molecular dynamics simulations.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> We tested the most common benzimidazoles such as Fenbendazole, Albendazole, and Mebendazole on the target enzyme hexokinase II. The Autodock vina showed that the binding affinity values were between -7.9 and -6.1 kcal/mol for all three benzimidazoles. The IC<sub>50</sub> values were 0.29, 2.5, and 10 μM for Fenbendazole, Albendazole, and Mebendazole, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Taken altogether, Fenbendazole appears to show most effective inhibition on hexokinase II. This research may give better insight in development of target-specific benzimidazole derivatives as potential anticancer therapeutics.</p> Hillary J. Navarro Jhawn G. Saul Andrew E. Huckleby Sung-Kun Kim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 59 66 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i43A36311 In vitro Callus Induction of Catunaregam spinosa Using Leaves as Explant https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/36313 <p><strong>Aims: </strong><em>C. spinosa </em>(Family Rubiaceae) is a valuable medicinal since years ago. A protocol was developed including best sterilization and best medium for callus induction of <em>C. spinosa </em>using leaf discs as explants.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Sterilization protocol optimized using different concentrations of Carbendazim<sup>®</sup> (0.2,</p> <p>0.3%) and Clorox (10, 15%) exposing to different time intervals (10, 15 min). Percentage survival and contaminations were calculated. Best medium was optimized using different concentrations of 6-Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) and Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) (1.0-6.0 mg L<sup>-1</sup>). Growth regulators free Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium was used as control. Completely randomized design was followed with ten replicates in each concentration. Days taken to initiate calli, morphological characteristics and mean dry weights of calli were evaluated after 3 months of incubation.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Leaf discs sterilization with 0.3% Carbendazim for 10 min, 10 % Clorox for 10 min and 70% ethanol for 30 sec followed by two washings in sterile distilled water was found to be best sterilization protocol. It recorded lowest percentage contamination (13.34%) and highest percentage survival (86.66%) after 8 weeks. No observable changes were found in calli grown in growth regulators free MS medium. Calli growth and morphologies were significantly affected by the type of growth regulator and their concentrations in MS medium. Color of the calli varied from white opaque to yellow brown to green and the texture from foamy, loose, and friable to compact. Best medium with 1.0 mg L<sup>-1</sup> BAP and 3.0 mg L<sup>-1</sup> NAA produced green friable calli with 0.0969±0.01 g mean dry weight after 3 months. Some traits were found to be depended on synergetic effect of growth regulators and genotypic characteristics of explant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study provides a better sterilization protocol and medium for <em>in vitro </em>calli induction and growth of <em>C. spinosa</em>.</p> P. K. Lawrence W. T. P. S. K. Senarath M. L. A. M. S. Munasinghe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-02 2022-07-02 67 76 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i43A36313 Enterobacteriaceae Therapy using Bacteriophages: A Review https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/36306 <p><em>Enterobacteriaceae</em> are a family of bacteria, including many familiar pathogens that cause signs of diarrhoea in humans and animals, such as&nbsp;<em>Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella, </em>and <em>Klebsiella</em>. <em>Enterobacteriaceae, </em>the first Gram-negative bacteria, are bacilli (rod-shaped) facultative anaerobes. They ferment sugars to produce lactic acid and other end products. They are usually about 1-5 μm in length. Most are motile because of many flagella; however, a few genera are non-motile. They do not form spores. Most <em>Enterobacteriaceae</em> members have fimbriae necessary for the adhesion of the bacterial cells to their hosts. They are economically significant and thus a considerable concern because they cause the deaths of millions of people each year, resulting in a significant situation to curb their infection. Due to the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria, there is an urgency to search for replacement therapies against bacteria in the <em>Enterobacteriaceae</em> family. To find a solution to this traumatic problem, studies have been launched in the areas of bacteriophages and their therapeutic application as a significant replacement for antibiotics. Bacteriophage therapy utilizes a different mechanism in destroying bacteria; hence, it is a better alternative to antibiotics. This review sheds light on <em>Enterobacteriaceae</em> and bacteriophage therapy, as well as the history of bacteriophage therapy, its mode of lysing bacteria and formulations of phages.</p> C. K. Udomessien N. E. Okon C. B. Ubah V. B. Oti M. Ioannou E. A. Ufot ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-27 2022-06-27 14 23 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i43A36306