Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-9119)</strong> is dedicated to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JPRI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all areas of pharmaceutical Science including pharmaceutical drugs, community pharmacy, hospital pharmacy, clinical pharmacy, compounding pharmacy, consultant pharmacy, internet pharmacy, veterinary pharmacy, nuclear pharmacy, military pharmacy, pharmacy informatics, pharmaceutics, medicinal chemistry, pharmacognosy, pharmacotherapy, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical pharmacology, neuropharmacology, psychopharmacology, pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics, pharmacoepidemiology, toxicology, theoretical pharmacology, posology, pharmacognosy, behavioral pharmacology, environmental pharmacology, medicine development and safety testing, drug legislation and safety, pharmaceutical microbiology, pharmaceutical molecular biology, pharmaceutical biotechnology.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International 2456-9119 Clinical and Humanistic Outcomes of Tuberculosis Treatment in a Nigerian Directly Observed Treatment Short Course Centre <p><strong>Background:</strong> Tuberculosis remains a major global health problem. It causes ill-health among millions of people each year and ranks alongside the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as a leading cause of death worldwide. The objective of the study was to evaluate the clinical and humanistic outcomes of tuberculosis treatment at the directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) centre in Jos University Teaching Hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Data for clinical outcomes was collected retrospectively at the directly observed treatment shortcouse centre of Jos University Teaching Hospital from a cross-section of patients’ folders who had been treated for tuberculosis at the study site for at least 12months as at 1<sup>st</sup> April to 30<sup>th</sup> September 2018 while a validated questionnaire was administered prospectively to a census population of tuberculosis patients still undergoing treatment between 1<sup>st</sup> October 2018 and 31<sup>st</sup> March 2019 to determine the humanistic outcomes. A descriptive data analysis was done using SPSS version 23 and proportions were tested using chi squared statistics with significance level set at <em>P</em>&lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study revealed that tuberculosis treatment success in the centre was 76.33% which falls short of WHO standard of minimum of 85%. Patients taking tuberculosis treatment in the centre are satisfied with the services rendered to them and the improvement in their health conditions. Unfriendly attitude of some health care providers in the facility is an area for intervention.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Clinical and humanistic outcomes of tuberculosis treatment was found to be satisfactory in the facility owing to the level of treatment success and patient reported satisfaction with facility services and improvement in their health conditions.</p> D. W. Dayom M. K. Madison M. A. Adeniyi B. N. Joseph C. N. Sariem S. G. Mohammed A. P. Lomak ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-03 2020-07-03 1 9 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1130497 Effect of Methanolic Extract of Securigera securidaca as Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities <p>In the present work, the phytochemical screening, polyphenolic content, antibacterial activity and antioxidant activity of <em>Securigera securidaca</em> seeds in methanol were carried out. Phytochemical analysis of seeds showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, steroids and glycosides. Total phenolic content was estimated by Folin Ciocalteau method and the result showed the highest phenolic content of 62.28 mg/g. Methanolic extract was screened for antibacterial activity by disc diffusion method and it found to be potent. The MIC of methanol extract identified by broth dilution method showed a MIC value of 0.25 mg/ml for both <em>E. coli</em> and <em>Kl. Oxytoca</em>, and also 0.5 mg/ml for both <em>S. aureus</em> and <em>S. epidermis.</em> The antioxidant effect of the seeds was tested by DPPH scavenging activity as <em>in vitro </em>assay. The extract had potent inhibitory activity (IC<sub>50</sub>) value of 0.057 mg/ml. The finding experimental results showed that methanolic extract of <em>Securigera securidaca</em> is important as a source of antibacterial activity and polyphenolic antioxidants.</p> Ghassab M. Al- Mazaideh Saleh A. Al- Quran ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-06 2020-07-06 10 17 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1130498 Efficiency of Three Extracts of Carica papaya as Molluscicidal and Anti-schistosomal Agents against Biomphalaria alexandrina and Schistosoma mansoni by Flow Cytometry <p>Schistosomias is a prevalent parasitic disease in tropical and sub-tropical areas, which comes in the second place in terms of socioeconomic and public health burden. Around 600 million people in 74 countries are infected yearly, predominantly in the developing world. The aim of this work was to assess the efficiency of three extracts from <em>Carica papaya </em>(methanol, ethanol and butanol extracts) for their molluscicidal and anti-schistosomal activities. The LC<sub>50</sub> of methanol, ethanol and butanol extracts of <em>Carica papaya </em>against <em>B. alexandrinea </em>were 180, 499.3 and 509.1 mg/L while the respective LC<sub>90</sub> values were 220.3, 700.6, 769.6 mg/L respectively. The effect of these extracts on <em>Biomphalaria alexandrina </em>snails and larval stages of <em>Schistosma mansoni</em>, for miracidia the LC<sub>50</sub> of methanol, ethanol and butanol extracts of <em>Carica papaya </em>against miracidia were 3.4, 15.4 and 8.1 mg/L, respectively, while the respective LC90 values were 8.4, 38.2, 11.2 mg/L, and for&nbsp; cercariae the LC<sub>50</sub> of methanol, ethanol and butanol extracts of <em>Carica papaya </em>were 2, 20 and 4 mg/L, while the respective LC90 values were 13.5, 80.5, 18.5 mg/L respectively&nbsp; was evaluated, in addition to flowcytometric analysis of CD4, CD25, FOXP3 and TGF-<em>β</em> levels during <em>S. mansoni</em> infection in mice. The <em>in-vivo </em>results showed that the three extracts have variable potential against snails and miracidia and cercariae of<em> S. mansoni</em>. The mortality rate in <em>B. alexandrina</em> snails for methanol, ethanol and butanol extracts of <em>Carcia papay</em> were 86%, 45% and 64%, respectively. While it was 83%, 35% and 66%, respectively in miracidia and 92%, 40% and 70%, respectively in cercariae. The results indicated that methanol extract <em>from Carica papaya </em>recorded higher activity against snails, miracidia and cercariae. The levels of CD4, CD25, FOXP3 regulatory T (Treg) cells were decreased significantly (p&lt;0.001) in infected mice compared to healthy controls. However, there was a significant (p&lt;0.001) increase in levels of TGF-<em>β</em>. A significant increase in the levels of CD4, CD25, and FOXP3 Treg in <em>Carica papaya </em>treated group compared to infected control group, with a significant (<em>p</em>&lt;0.001) decrease in TGF-<em>β</em> level than infected group. In conclusion, methanol extract was more effective at concentration of LC<sub>50 180 </sub>and LC<sub>90 220.3</sub> than ethanol and butanol extracts of Carica<em> papaya </em>therefore controlling <em>B. alexandrina</em> snails by methanol extract is a promising way as it is an eco-friendly strategy in rural areas of developing countries, where schistosomiasis is endemic. Moreover, the increased immune defense mechanism in treated group with the same extracts is a promising target for new immune modulatory strategies against schistosomiasis.</p> Ibrahim Aly Mona S. Gouida Hoda E. L. Sayed Sama M. N. Attiyah Shaimaa Shaker Noha A. Elleboudy Samah I. Ghoname ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 31 41 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1130543 Safety Profile and Toxicity Amelioration Strategies of Common Adverse Effects Associated with Anticancer Medications <p>More than half the cancer patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy develop adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Cancer chemotherapeutic agents have a lower risk-benefit ratio than other drug therapy and kill cancerous as well as the normal rapidly dividing cells including bone marrow cells, gastrointestinal epithelium, hair follicles, etc. Their main ADRs are nausea and vomiting, mucositis, constipation, diarrhea, hematological toxicities, cardiac toxicity, alopecia, gonadal toxicity, pulmonary toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, etc. The severity of the adverse effects may range from mild nausea to life-threatening neutropenia. Administering premedication and antidotes are very vital in these patients. Upon the occurrence of adverse effects, immediate steps should be taken to manage them. Though the ADRs due to anticancer medications are not avoidable, careful monitoring of the patients and modulating the drug schedules/dosages can help in minimizing them. Healthcare professionals should also develop strategies to minimize the occupational hazards associated with these drugs.</p> Mallik Singaraju Subish Palaian Pathiyil Ravi Shankar Sunil Shrestha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-06 2020-07-06 18 30 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1130499