Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-9119)</strong> is dedicated to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JPRI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all areas of pharmaceutical Science including pharmaceutical drugs, community pharmacy, hospital pharmacy, clinical pharmacy, compounding pharmacy, consultant pharmacy, internet pharmacy, veterinary pharmacy, nuclear pharmacy, military pharmacy, pharmacy informatics, pharmaceutics, medicinal chemistry, pharmacognosy, pharmacotherapy, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical pharmacology, neuropharmacology, psychopharmacology, pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics, pharmacoepidemiology, toxicology, theoretical pharmacology, posology, pharmacognosy, behavioral pharmacology, environmental pharmacology, medicine development and safety testing, drug legislation and safety, pharmaceutical microbiology, pharmaceutical molecular biology, pharmaceutical biotechnology.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International 2456-9119 Echocardiographic Changes in Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Reference to Body Mass Index and Waist Hip Ratio https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30598 <p>Type2 diabetes mellitus is associated with central obesity. Studies shows that central obesity, leads to insulin resistance is an important determinant for insulin resistance and cardiovascular morbidity. In the present study clinical profile of type2 diabetics with special reference to cardiac changes were studied and their relationship were established. This is a prospective cross-sectional study conducted in Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital. 50 obese patients with controlled diabetes less than 5 years of duration were compared with obese non diabetics. There is significant statistical correlation with obese diabetic subjects particularly females, alterations in LV geometry. Obese female subjects had predominantly higher left ventricular mass. From the data of the present study high BMI, WHR have increased incidence of cardiovascular disease.</p> G. Meenakshi N. N. Anand ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-06 2020-08-06 1 5 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430598 Evaluation of Some Cytokines, CD4, Hepcidin, Iron, and Some Haematological Parameters of Patients Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Southeastern Part of Nigeria https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30599 <p>A study to evaluate the levels of interferon-gamma, interleukins 6 and 10, hepcidin, iron status and some haematological parameters in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus was carried out. A total of 150 subjects aged 18-60 years were enlisted for this study. The subjects were grouped into: Group A (50 control subjects) and Group B (100 HIV subjects, 50 subjects were non ART HIV patients, 50 subjects were on Lamivudine, Tenofavir and Efavirenz). About 7ml of venous blood were collected from each subject; 4.5 ml of blood were placed into plain tubes for assay of interferon gamma, interleukins (6&amp;10), hepcidin and iron and 2.5ml for FBC, CD4 count and HIV screening. The cytokines and hepcidin were measured using Melsin ELISA Kits and Teco Diagnostics kits used for iron. Full blood count was determined by automation using Mindray BC-5300, China. The data was analysed with the statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20 using ANOVA and the level of significance set at P&lt;0.05. The results showed difference that was statistically significant (P&lt;0.05) in IFN-γ (16.25±0.87 pg/ml, 29.31±1.44 pg/ml,18.49±1.48 pg/ml, P=0.000), IL-6(7.98±0.22 pg/ml, 11.08±1.21 pg/ml, 8.79±0.76 pg/ml, P=0.000), IL-10(8.52±0.62 pg/ml, 16.62±1.53 pg/ml, 10.39±1.06P g/ml P=0.000), CD4 (1045.54 ±247.24 Cells/L, 195.60 ±35.94 Cells/L,10.39±1.06 cells/L P=0.000), hepcidin (6.03±1.38 ng/ml, 39.59 ±4.50 ng/ml, 20.86±3.43 ng/ml, P=0.000), Iron (86.29±7.27 µg/dl, 73.43±5.45 µg/dl, 85.44±8.45 µg/dl, P=0.000), TIBC (345.56±28.40 µg/dl, 287.19 ±8.21 µg/dl, 305.46±18.82 µg/dl, P=0.000), %TSA (25.16±3.18%, 25.61±2.22%,28.08 ±3.42%, P=0.000) WBC (5.87 ±0.88 X 10<sup>9</sup>/L, 4.69±0.72X 10<sup>9</sup>/L,4.80±0.45X 10<sup>9</sup>/L, P=0.000), Neutrophils (60.57±2.83%, 75.16±3.68%, 69.04±2.90%, P=0.000), Lymphocytes (30.69 ±2.84%, 17.24±2.50%, 24.46±2.60%, P=0.000), Monocytes (5.59 ±1.2%, 4.18±1.12%, 3.97±0.92%, P=0.000), Eosinophils (2.30 ±1.05%, 2.16±0.82%, 1.67±0.57%, P=0.000), Basophil 0.86 ±0.39%, 1.31±0.94%, 0.86±0.44%, P=0.018), RBC (4.92±0.30 X 10<sup>12</sup>/L, 3.34±0.21 X 10<sup>12</sup>/L, 3.60 ±0.18X 10<sup>12</sup>/L, P=0.000), Haemoglobin (14.75±0.90,g/dl, 10.05±0.65 g/dl,10.80±0.53 g/dl, P=0.000), PCV (44.25±2.70%, 30.14±1.95,32.56±1.50%, P=0.000), MCV (89.92±2.3fl, 79.49±1.28fl,88.15±2.08fl, P=0.029), MCH (36.12±1.53 pg, 26.60±0.48P, P=0.002), Platelets (261.75±22.71 X 10<sup>9</sup>/L, 246.16±9.93 X 10<sup>9</sup>/L,189.32±17.00X 10<sup>9</sup>/L, P=0.000), ESR (7.03 ±1.38mm/hr, 59.52 ±6.46mm/hr,43.34±4.82mm/hr, P=0.000) when compared among Control, Non ART HIV and ART positive subjects.g,28.57±1.78 pg, P=0.000), MCHC (368.46±12.28 g/l, 318.92±7.33 g/l, 333.56±22.61 g/l. The study shows that interferon gamma, interleukin 6, interleukin 10 and hepcidin are some of the biomarkers in the pathogenesis of HIV. The infection of HIV increases the levels of the cytokines. The cytokines and hepcidin can be used as prognostic and diagnostic markers as their levels decreased with treatment of the patients.</p> Obeagu, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Kalu, Ochie Ogbu, I. S. I. Esimai, Bessie Nonyelum Ugwuja, Mabel Chikodili Ogbu, Chinemerem Asogwa, Eucharia Ijego ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-07 2020-08-07 6 14 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430599 Comparative Analysis of Serum Lipoprotein (a) in Hypothyroid and Healthy Subjects https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30601 <p>This study is taken up to estimate and compare the level of serum Lp(a) in hypothyroid patients and in healthy controls. A total of 50&nbsp; hypothyroid patients within aged group 20-60 years and total of 50 healthy controls within 20-60 years were enrolled in the study after taking written consent.&nbsp; Thyroid profile and Lp(a) were measured by CLIA and immune turbidemetric method respectively. Data collected was analysed using Stata version 14.1 software. Result shows an increased level of Lp(a) among hypothyroid patients when compared to healthy controls.</p> Leishangthem Rina V. S. Kalaiselvi B. Shanthi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-07 2020-08-07 19 22 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430601 Antibiotic Dispensing Practices in Community Pharmacies: A Major Health Concern in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30603 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The practice of antibiotic dispensing in community pharmacies may contribute to irrational use of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic dispensing patterns in community pharmacies of the Eastern DRCongo.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> It is a cross-sectional study carried out at Bukavu city. The study included 1504 subjects attending community pharmacies. Thus, a total number of 40 pharmacies were selected. The sociodemographic profiles of patients and dispensers were also recorded. The pharmacological interventions were investigated in terms of antibiotics dispensed according to patient’s complaints, antibiotic dispensing with or without prescription, the substitution of antibiotics in prescriptions.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Participants attending pharmacies for antibiotic needs were in the mean age of 29.8±13 years. Most of the pharmacy workers consisted of pharmacy technicians (70%) and no trained dispensers (20%). Pharmacists represented only 10% of all dispensers in community pharmacies. We found that 67.8% of subjects purchased antibiotics without prescription. The antibiotics dispensed without prescription were either on patients’ requests (70.1%) or the suggestion of dispensers (29.9%). Only 18.4% of prescriptions were subject to substitution. The conditions for requiring antibiotic dispensing without prescriptions were respectively gastrointestinal (34%), respiratory (27%), genitourinary (25%), skin (11%) and dental (2%) infections. Conditions that were not well defined represented 1%. In cephalosporins, Cefixime was the most important drug dispensed without prescription (72.5%) whereas in penicillins, this was Amoxicillin (55.5%). Doxycycline was more dispensed in the class of cyclines (69.4%). Erythromycin (53.1%) and Azithromycin (29.4%) were more dispensed in the class of macrolides. Ciprofloxacin was the most dispensed drug in the class of quinolones (74.3%) and Metronidazole (86.8%) in the class of imidazoles.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The Antibiotic dispensing practice is very critical in the community pharmacies of Bukavu city due to the lack of qualified dispensers. This may increase the antibiotic self-medication and contribute to antibiotic resistance.</p> Aimerance Bahati Ntizala Tresor Yoshua Mulume Bernard Lukundja Runyeruka Antoine Sadiki Kishabongo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-08 2020-08-08 33 44 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430603 Assessment of Etiological Factors of Female Primary Infertility https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30604 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The aim of the study was to assess the etiological factors of female primary infertility.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of the Study:</strong> This prospective study was conducted in the Gynaecology clinic of Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, from August 2016 to February 2018.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> All the reproductive age group women coming to Gynaecology opd out patient clinic with history of anxious to conceive. Those patients who satisfy the above criteria those have been selected for the study.</p> <p>The test has been carried out in hospitalized patients:</p> <ol> <li>A detailed history were taken.</li> <li>General physical and systemic examination were done.</li> <li>Ovarian factors and uterine factors ruled out.</li> <li>For tubal cannulation.</li> </ol> <p>The data collection technique adopted in this technique is structured questionnaire on the evaluation of infertility in couple of less than 35 years of age in a period of infertility less than 5 years from infertility OPD for one and half years of Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital. Detailed history obtained from the couple and evaluate, informat ion with the help of various investigation in evaluating an infertile couple [1].</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Age: The prevalence of infertility in the age group 21 – 29 years were about 76% in women. Menarche This showed that maximum number of female attain menarche at the age group of 12 to 14 years. In our study, it is observed that there is a strong relation of infertility with BMI, the prevalence of infertility increases as BMI Increases in population. 22% of the women have BMI above 30 (obese). In our study, 8% of the women has hydrosalpinx, 4% of the women had fibroids and 6% of the women has polyps. We observed that 4% of the women had unilateral fallopian tubal block and 2% had bilateral fallopian tubal block [2].</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In modern era of economically growing world we have concluded that the prevalence of infertility is about 76% in women age group of 21-29, 40% of the women has attained menarche at 12-14 years, observed hydrosalpinx in 8%, polyps in 6% and fibroids in 4% [3].</p> T. Mohana R. Yuvarani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-08 2020-08-08 45 49 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430604 A Study on Left Ventricular Mass of Patients Having Hypertension in Women with Menopause https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30605 <p>Increase in left-ventricular mass has become an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although, there is an obvious change in the cardiac size with respect to age and the hypertrophic stimuli, it is very different in men and women. In men the left ventricular mass may remain constant with age, while in women it increases with age. These findings are even more pronounced in women more than 50 years of age who have attained menopause. This study is to show that even though left ventricular mass increases in menopausal women compared to younger women in the reproductive age group, it is more severe in women who have hypertension.</p> Daya Sindhu Krishna T. Manivel S. Palaniandavan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-08 2020-08-08 50 53 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430605 The Effect of Propranolol on Sperm Parameters, CatSper 2 Gene and Protein Expression, and Oxidative Stress in Adult Mice https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30606 <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of propranolol on sperms, histopathology of testes, and<em> CatSper </em>2 gene and protein expression in adult mice. 18 adult male mice were randomly divided into control, propranolol 1 (receiving 10 mg/kg dose) and propranolol 2 group (receiving 15 mg/kg dose for 35 days). The mean amount of sperm parameters in the propranolol 1 and propranolol 2 groups was significantly lower than the control group (p&lt;0.05). <em>CatSper</em>2 gene and protein expression have significantly decreased in propranolol 1 and propranolol 2 groups compared to the control group (P&lt;0.05). Reduction of <em>CatSper</em>2 gene and protein expression in low dose of propranolol was more severe than high dose. In testicular tissues of the propranolol 1 group, vacuoles and necrosis in the germinal epithelium were observed, and in testicular tissues of propranolol 2 group decrease in the thickness of the germinal epithelium, some vacuoles and necrosis were observed in germinal epithelium as well as congestion in the interstitial space. The mean value of thiol and catalase enzyme in the propranolol 1 and propranolol 2 groups, and the mean value of superoxide dismutase in propranolol 1 group, were significantly different compared to the control group (P&lt;0.05).</p> Shabnam Mohammadi Farimah Beheshti Sepideh Elyasi Mehdi Jalali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-08 2020-08-08 54 63 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430606 Maternal Serum Levels of Alpha Tumour Necrotic Factor, Interleukin 10, Interleukin 6 and Interleukin 4 in Malaria Infected Pregnant Women Based on Their Gestational Age in Southeast, Nigeria https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30607 <p>Malaria has been reported as a condition caused by infestation with Plasmodium parasite species, is a major public health problem globally especially in developing countries like Nigeria. This study was carried out in Federal Medical Centre Umuahia in Abia State, Nigeria. A study was done to determine the maternal serumlevels of alpha tumour necrotic factor, interleukin 10, interleukin 6and interleukin 4 in malaria infected pregnant women based on their gestational age in Southeast, Nigeria. A total of 150 subjects between the ages of 18-45 years were recruited for the study comprising of fifty (50) subjects each of the 3 trimesters. Commercial ELISA Kit by MELSIN Medical Co Limited was used to measure all the cytokines. The results of Table 1 showed no significant difference of TNF-α (p=0.346), IL-10 (p=0.059), IL-6 (p=0.811) and IL-4 (p=0.257) of malaria infected pregnant women at first trimester and second trimester respectively. The results of Table 2 showed no significant difference of TNF-α (p=0.642), IL-10 (p=0.678), IL-6 (p=0.551) and IL-4 (p=0.280) of malaria infected pregnant women at first trimester and third trimester respectively. The results of Table 2 showed no significant difference of TNF-α (p=0.062), IL-10 (p=0.016), IL-6 (p=0.352) and IL-4 (p=0.914) of malaria infected pregnant women at first trimester and third trimester respectively. The study showed no changes in the cytokines studied among the malaria infected pregnant women based on gestational ages except when IL-10 was compared between the subjects on second trimester and third trimester. This study shows that malaria infection does not changes these cytokines in pregnant women based on gestational ages except the il-10 when compared at second trimester and third trimester but changes when compared at other trimesters.</p> Obeagu, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Esimai, Bessie Nonyelum Ekelozie, Ifeoma Stella Asogwa Eucharia Ijego Amaeze Augustine Amaeze Chukwu, Stella Nchekwubedi Amaeze, Florence Ngozi Ugwuja, Mabel Chikodili Chukwu, Sunday Kyrian ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-10 2020-08-10 64 70 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430607 Knowledge of Dietary Supplements among Women in the Aseer Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30608 <p><strong>Background: </strong>A significant growth in dietary supplement usage has occurred and this trend is particularly evident among females. This underlines the need to establish current knowledge levels among a female participant cohort based in the Aseer Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), along with determining the types of products being used and the typical reasons cited for their consumption.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A total of 173 participants drawn from various age groups took part in this descriptive cross-sectional survey design. The survey was conducted over a three-month period from September to November 2019, using a structured online questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results of this research show that dietary supplement usage was highly prevalent among study participants. Young females (18–24 years) demonstrated significantly higher knowledge levels as compared to all other age groups (<em>p</em>&lt;0.001 vs. other participants).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study has clearly shown that the participants in fact have a very varied range of knowledge, very often according to age, about the use of dietary supplements. 18–24-year-olds demonstrated higher levels of dietary supplement knowledge compared to the other age groups.</p> Mabrouk Al- Rasheedi Maha ALrajhi Saad S. Alqahtani Alreshidi Mateq Ali Mohammad Alharbi Nayef Samah Alharbi Somayah Alsuhaibani Abdulaziz Kardam Yasir Alhazmi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-10 2020-08-10 71 86 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430608 Breast Carcinoma- A Review https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30600 <p>Breast malignancy has fast overtaken ovarian malignancy as the leading cause of death in women. A number of factors attribute to the rise in breast cancer, including obesity, food habits and carcinogen exposure. This article is a review of breast malignancy, and its pathological nature, and highlights the significance of axillary staging as a prognostic factor, and hence the importance of axillary investigation.</p> Shreya Rajkumar P. Darwin C. T. Karthikeyan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-07 2020-08-07 15 18 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430600 Review on Pharmacoscintigraphy https://journaljpri.com/index.php/JPRI/article/view/30602 <p>Pharmacoscintigraphy is a non-invasive technique for determining the fate of drugs after administration into humans. Collecting valuable information through the pharmacoscintigraphy about absorption and release mechanisms of drugs from formulations, and thus proving to be an invaluable tool in developing newer and more effective formulations. Such studies can be used to determine the behavior of drugs, formulation as well as diagnostic agents that are administered. In this technique, radiolabelled formulations are administered to patients by their intended route of administration. Their transit through the body is monitored using sophisticated imaging cameras. Since the amount of radiotracer that is used is very low, this is a safe, efficient, and accurate method for studying the behavior of drugs in the human body. Preclinical studies of newer drugs have successfully been carried out using the pharmacoscintigraphic technique.&nbsp;</p> P. V. Kamala Kumari S. Anitha Y. Srinivasa Rao ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-07 2020-08-07 23 32 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1430602