Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International 2021-04-13T11:12:45+00:00 Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-9119)</strong> is dedicated to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JPRI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all areas of pharmaceutical Science including pharmaceutical drugs, community pharmacy, hospital pharmacy, clinical pharmacy, compounding pharmacy, consultant pharmacy, internet pharmacy, veterinary pharmacy, nuclear pharmacy, military pharmacy, pharmacy informatics, pharmaceutics, medicinal chemistry, pharmacognosy, pharmacotherapy, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical pharmacology, neuropharmacology, psychopharmacology, pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics, pharmacoepidemiology, toxicology, theoretical pharmacology, posology, pharmacognosy, behavioral pharmacology, environmental pharmacology, medicine development and safety testing, drug legislation and safety, pharmaceutical microbiology, pharmaceutical molecular biology, pharmaceutical biotechnology.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Synovial Fluid Analysis and Biopsy in Diagnosis of Joint Diseases 2021-04-11T09:09:03+00:00 Veena Singh Hemalatha Ganapathy J. Thanka <p>Worldwide, Arthritis is a communal clinical incidence of joints, and very predominant chronic disease in India. To evaluate to affect 1% of world’s adult population. Biopsies of Synovial fluid are being done as an adjuvant technique to assist in the diagnosis of arthritis. It offers a non-invasive method to diagnose any condition of the joint like traumatic, non-inflammatory/ inflammatory. Cytomorphological examination of Synovial fluids received&nbsp;&nbsp; in&nbsp;&nbsp; the&nbsp;&nbsp; Department&nbsp;&nbsp; of&nbsp;&nbsp; Pathology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai. To examine the&nbsp;&nbsp; gross,&nbsp;&nbsp; microscopic, biochemical and&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; microbiologic variations in&nbsp;&nbsp; the&nbsp;&nbsp; synovial fluid in percutaneous synovial biopsy along with synovial fluid analysis was studied in 102 enrolled cases of arthritis. The liquefied was subjected to physical, biochemical and cytological analysis. To correlate synovial fluid cytology with biopsies whenever possible to increase the accuracy&nbsp;&nbsp; of diagnosis. Synovial fluid analysis plays an important role in categorizing various arthritis and thereby helps in arriving at a diagnosis early.</p> 2021-04-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Smoking May Increase the Risk of COVID-19 Infection: Evidence from In Silico Analysis 2021-04-12T10:05:25+00:00 Qazi Mohammad Sajid Jamal Saif Khan Mahvish Khan Awais Abrar Ansai Jalaluddin Mohammad Ashraf Mahmoud Habibullah Abdullah Farasani Aymen Mohammed Madkhali Mohtashim Lohani <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>SARS-CoV2, first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan as COVID-19 causing respiratory illness, rapidly evolved into a pandemic owing to its very high infectivity. There is insufficient evidence about if and how smoking affects the risk of COVID-19 infection, and the reports on whether smoking increases or reduces the risk of respiratory infections, are contradictory. Therefore, the current study was designed to determine the effects of nicotine consumption on the infectivity of COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>We performed <em>in silico</em> computer simulation-based study. The structures of SARS-CoV2spike ectodomain, and its receptor ACE2, were obtained from PDB. The structure of nicotine and its metabolites NNK and NNAL were obtained from the PubChem chemical database. After optimization, they were interacted using AutoDock 4.2, to see the effect of nicotine, NNK, or NNAL presence on the docking of viral spike protein to its receptor ACE2.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>ACE2 vs spike protein interaction results were used as a control (ZDOCK score 1498.484, with four hydrogen bonds). The NNK+ACE2 vs spike protein docking formed 10 hydrogen bonds with the highest ZDOCK score of 1515.564. NNAL+ ACE2 vs spike protein interaction formed eleven hydrogen bonds with the ZDOCK score of 1499.371. Nicotine+ACE2 vs spike protein docking showed the lowest ZDOCK score of 1496.302 and formed 8 hydrogen bonds. Whereas, NNK+spike vs ACE2 interaction had a ZDOCK score of 1498.490 and formed eight hydrogen bonds. NNAL+spike vs ACE2 docking formed eleven hydrogen bonds with a ZDOCK score of 1498.482. And Nicotine+spike vs ACE2 interaction showed a ZDOCK score of 1498.488 and formed 9 hydrogen bonds.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The binding of nicotine to either spike of virus or its receptor ACE2 is not affecting the viral docking with the receptor. But binding of NNK, a metabolite of nicotine, is facilitating the viral docking with its receptor indicating that smoking may increase the risk of COVID-19 infection.</p> 2021-04-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Liquid Based Cytology versus Conventional Cytology for Evaluation of Cervical PAP Smear 2021-04-12T10:14:22+00:00 Vishakha Chandwani K. Saraswathi G. Bheema Rao Vindu Sivastava <p>The cervix is the narrow inferior segment of the uterus which projects into the vaginal vault.&nbsp; Conventional cervical cytology is a simple, cost effective method that has been in use for more than 50 years and is still a highly effective cervical cancer screening procedure. Liquid-based, thin-layer preparation of cervical cytology specimens was a subsequent modification in technique. The present study was split-sample study was to compare Thin Prep Liquid-based Cytology with Conventional Pap Smear, relying on a laboratory with long term experience of the former. In our study most of the Conventional preparations showed cell overlapping, inflammatory cells, blood and mucus that obscure the epithelial cell&nbsp; morphology&nbsp; which&nbsp; was much reduced in Liquid based preparations.</p> 2021-04-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Frequency of Erectile Dysfunction in Patients Receiving Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin for the Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C 2021-04-13T10:58:08+00:00 Prem Kumar Chaman Das Kapeel Raja Muhammad Arif Nadeem Muhammad Nasim Akhtar Shabnam Rani <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The purpose behind this study was to determine the frequency of erectile dysfunction in patients receiving pegylated interferon and ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Prospective observational study.</p> <p><strong>Setting: </strong>Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical Unit III, Services Hospital, Lahore.</p> <p><strong>Period:</strong> Six months from 10<sup>st</sup> July 2017 to 9<sup>th</sup> January 2018.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>We have evaluated a total of 130 patients through a consecutive sampling technique who were admitted or visited Out-Patient-Department (OPD) with an underlying diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection and advise to take anti viral regime (Pegylated interferon and ribavirin combination therapy) for HCV treatment and followed after 12 weeks and 24 weeks for erectile dysfunction.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 130 patients with HCV infection were included. The overall mean age of the patients was 37.4±9.6 years. The overall frequency of erectile dysfunction was 83.07%. Among them, equal percentage of patients at 12 and at week 24 did not have erectile dysfunction (N = 76, 58.5%). While severe erectile dysfunction was surprisingly more common at week 12 (14.61%, N = 19) than at week 24 (13.07%, N = 17) of treatment. Significant association of severe erectile dysfunction was only observed at week 12 in age group 40 – 60 years (p &lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Erectile dysfunction is more common and potential side effect of patients being treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin but duration of therapy did not affect the prevalence of sexual impairment although with increasing age, the prevalence of sexual dysfunction is significantly increased.</p> 2021-04-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Clinicopathological Correlation of Germ Cell Tumours in Gonads 2021-04-13T11:02:28+00:00 V. Lokeshwari Shanthi Vijayalakshmi S. Mary Lilly <p>Ovaries are paired pelvic organs located on thesides of the uterus. Although it is rare in the general population, between the age group of 20-40 years in males,Testicular germ cell neoplasms are the most common form of malignant tumour reported. In young women ovarian tumours rank second among the ovarian germ cell tumors and in males, the testicular germ cell tumorsserves as the leading percentage of tumors among all the testicular tumors seen in the early and late adulthood (3rd and 4th decade) of life. The people of reproductive age group are most vulnerable to gonadal germ cell tumours.Curing this age group without affecting their fertility is a challenging task. The risk of malignancy increases in existence of cryptorchidism/ undescended testis as in our study, 1 case of classical seminoma presented with undescended testis. To study germ cell tumors in gonads in relation to age, parity and mode of presentation and the correlation of biochemical markers and immunohistochemical markers at places in gonadal germ cell tumors.</p> 2021-04-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Detailed Study of CD10: A Stromal Marker in Breast Carcinoma 2021-04-13T11:12:45+00:00 Huidrom Jyotsna Devi P. Karkuzhali P. K. Baskaran S. Mary Lilly <p>Breast carcinoma is one of the most frequently occurring cancers among women with one million cases. Breast cancer is the primary cause of death in women around the world. It is one of the major concerns in public health due to its high occurrence and growing tendency.&nbsp;&nbsp; This complex functional structure develops from a highly modified apocrine sweat gland in the female, but remains rudimentary in male. Breast develops embryological into two lines along milk lines extending from axilla to groin. CD-10 is a 90- to 110-kDa cell surface zinc dependent metalloproteinase which is known as “Common Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Antigen” (CALLA). CD-10 acts&nbsp; as a stem cell regulator in the breast and&nbsp; prevents uncontrolled proliferation on stem cells The present study is designed to study the expression of CD-10, a breast carcinoma stromal marker and its correlation with ER, PR and HER2/neu status in breast carcinoma.</p> 2021-04-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##