Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International 2024-02-26T10:47:38+00:00 Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International (ISSN: 2456-9119)</strong> is dedicated to publish high quality papers (<a href="">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of pharmaceutical Science including pharmaceutical drugs, community pharmacy, hospital pharmacy, clinical pharmacy, compounding pharmacy, consultant pharmacy, internet pharmacy, veterinary pharmacy, nuclear pharmacy, military pharmacy, pharmacy informatics, pharmaceutics, medicinal chemistry, pharmacognosy, pharmacotherapy, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical pharmacology, neuropharmacology, psychopharmacology, pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics, pharmacoepidemiology, toxicology, theoretical pharmacology, posology, pharmacognosy, behavioral pharmacology, environmental pharmacology, medicine development and safety testing, drug legislation and safety, pharmaceutical microbiology, pharmaceutical molecular biology, pharmaceutical biotechnology. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">We are happy to announce that we are now a signatory and a proud member of <a href=""><strong>SDG Publishers Compact</strong></a>, an initiative by the United Nations.</p> In silico Toxicity and Pharmaceutical Properties to Get Candidates for Antitumor Drug 2024-02-21T09:50:08+00:00 Dewa Ayu Made Adnyaswari Agung Wiwiek Indrayani I. Gusti Ayu Artini <p><strong>Background:</strong> Drug metabolism is a crucial aspect of medical practice and pharmacology, involving the transformation of drugs by various bodily systems to create compounds that are more easily eliminated from the body. Sorafenib was reported as a useful adjuvant treatment in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent surgical resection. However, poor pharmacokinetic properties such as limited water solubility, rapid elimination and metabolism lead to low bioavailability, restricting its further clinical application. Rosmarinic acid, soluble in ethanol and found in Rosemary leaves, has demonstrated therapeutic benefits in conditions such as cancer, diabetes, inflammatory disorders, neurodegenerative disorders, and liver disease.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong><em>In silico</em> is a term for experiments or tests carried out using computer simulation methods. <em>In silico</em> testing has emerged as a valuable approach for initiating the exploration of novel drug compounds or enhancing the efficacy of existing ones. This method involves predicting, generating hypotheses, and uncovering potential breakthroughs in medicine and therapy through virtual simulations.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Caco2 value of Sorafenib ligand as a comparison, namely 0.762. The highest Caco2 value is owned by Betulinic Acid and the value The lowest Caco2 is owned by Rosmarinic Acid. The highest sample HIA value was owned by Ursolic Acid and the lowest was owned by Rosmarinic Acid. Meanwhile, Sorafenib's HIA value is 85,494. ligands such as Carnosol and rosmanol have a high distribution volume, while the Sama carnosic league, ursolic acid and betulinic acid have a low distribution volume. The Rosmarinic acid ligand has a good distribution volume of 0.393, while the distribution volume value of Sorafenib is -0.009. The highest BBB sample value was owned by Carnosol and the lowest was owned by Rosmarinic acid. Meanwhile, the comparison ligand has a value of -1.473 and is considered less distributed in the brain. all ligands such as Carnosic Acid, Carnosol, Rosmanol, Ursolic Acid, Betulinic Acid, Rosmarinic acid do not have mutagenicity and Cytotoxic effects, but have an effect on immunity. The comparison ligand Sorafenib turned out to have effects on hepatotoxicity, immunity and cytotoxicity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In pharmacokinetic research, the six phenolic acid compounds in Rosemary exhibited superior properties compared to the reference ligand Sorafenib.</p> 2024-02-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Adnyaswari et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Formulation Techniques, Characterization of Nanoemulsion and their Pharmaceutical Applications: A Comprehensive Technical Review 2024-02-26T10:47:38+00:00 Muhammad Abid Mustafa Namra Rasheed Hamza Farooq Muntaha Fazal Emaan Asif Hamna Shafiq Muqadas Amin Gohar Jaan Amna Nadeem Tooba Farooq Neha Fatima Sadia Ahmad Muhammad Zahid Iqbal <p>Nanoemulsions are stable liquid-in-liquid dispersions with large surface areas, strong stability, optical transparency, and adaptable rheology. These submicron-sized emulsions are being studied for drug delivery and targeting in cosmetics, diagnostics, drug therapies, and biotechnologies. This review explores various techniques for developing and characterizing nanoemulsions, their common formulations, merits, demerits, and current and future applications due to their unique structures and chemistries. The study emphasizes the importance of ideal formulations for nano-droplet systems, including droplet size, solubilization, colloidal stability, and optical and rheological characteristics.</p> 2024-02-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.