A Novel Efficient and Biodegradable Natural Catalyst and Bio Based Solvents for the Green One Pot Three Component Synthesis of Tetrahydrobenzo[B]pyran and 3,4-Dihydropyrano[C]chromenes

A. Kakeshpour

Department of Chemistry, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran.

A. Moradi *

Department of Chemistry, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran.

M. T. Maghsoodlou

Department of Chemistry, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran.

F. Moradi

Department of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


This study presents a novel and efficient method for synthesizing Tetrahydrobenzo[b]pyran and 3,4-Dihydropyrano[c]chromene derivatives using honey as a highly efficient homogeneous catalyst. Through a one-pot three-component condensation of aromatic aldehydes with malononitrile and dimedone or 4-hydroxycoumarin, excellent yields were achieved under environmentally friendly conditions. The utilization of honey, a non-toxic and biodegradable catalyst, underscores the method's significance in green chemistry. The abstract highlights the method's advantages, including high yields, short reaction times, simple work-up, and its potential for applications in the green pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Additionally, the intricate role of honey as a catalyst in chemical reactions is explored, shedding light on its mechanism and potential applications in organic synthesis and other chemical processes. This research introduces a promising and environmentally friendly approach for the green synthesis of biologically active heterocyclic compounds using a natural, biodegradable catalyst, contributing significantly to the advancement of green chemistry practices.

Keywords: Green chemistry, honey, biodegradable catalyst, homogeneous synthesis, three-component synthesis, Tetrahydrobenzo[b]pyran, Dihydropyrano[c]chromene

How to Cite

Kakeshpour , A., Moradi , A., Maghsoodlou , M. T. and Moradi , F. (2024) “A Novel Efficient and Biodegradable Natural Catalyst and Bio Based Solvents for the Green One Pot Three Component Synthesis of Tetrahydrobenzo[B]pyran and 3,4-Dihydropyrano[C]chromenes”, Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 36(7), pp. 13–26. doi: 10.9734/jpri/2024/v36i77534.


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