Antidepressant Activity of Nardostachys jatamansi Extract in Animal Models of Depression
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International,
Background: Depression refers to a wide range of mental health problems characterized by the loss of interest in routine activities, low mood and a range of associated emotional, cognitive, physical and behavioral symptoms. It is one of the major causes of mortality as tendency of suicidal attacks are exhibited in these patients. The diagnosis of depressive patients is very complicated in many cases and they do not respond to rational clinical prescription. In traditional medicine, Nardostachys jatamansi has been used as stimulant, antispasmodic, laxative and antiepileptic in ayurvedic and unani systems of medicine. The objective of our study was to evaluate and compare the antidepressant activity of N. jatamansi extract with fluoxetine in animal models of depression.
Methodology: It was a preclinical experimental study in which Total 100 BALB/c mice divide into 14 groups i.e. Group 1 & 2 control 0.9% NaCl i.p for forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) respectively, Group 3 & 4 Fluoxetine 0.5 mg/kg i.p for FST and TST respectively, Group 5, 6 & 7 of N. jatamansi 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg respectively for FST, Group 8, 9 & 10 N. jatamansi 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg respectively for TST, Group 11 N. jatamansi (most effective dose) for Locomotor Test, Group 12 NaCl 0.9% for Yohimbine Potentiation Test (YPT), Group 13 Fluoxetine 0.5 mg/kg for YPT and Group 14 Received extract of N. jatamansi (most effective dose) for YPT. Antidepressant activity of N. jatamansi extract at different doses after induction of depression via FST and TST was recorded. Moreover the antidepressant effect was confirmed by locomotor test. YPT was also applied to comment on possible underlying mechanism.
Results: In our study 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses of N. jatamansi showed significant reduction in immobility time when compared to controls and 500 mg/kg showed significant reduction as compared to group given fluoxetine in FST model. All the groups in TST model showed significant reduction in immobility time when compared to controls and fluoxetine given group. N. jatamansi at the dose of 500 mg/kg was found to be most effective in both the models. No significant change in locomotor activity was found in locomotor test. The percentage mortality of 50% was observed in N. jatamansi group using yohimbine potentiation test.
Conclusion: In our study Nardostachys jatamansi showed significant reduction in immobility time when compared to controls and fluoxetine.
- Nardostachys jatamansi
How to Cite
Khandaker GM, Zuber V, Rees JM, Carvalho L, Mason AM, Foley CN, et al. Shared mechanisms between coronary heart disease and depression: Findings from a large UK general population-based cohort. Molecular Psychiatry. 2020;25(7):1477-86.
Sumner LA, Olmstead R, Azizoddin DR, Ormseth SR, Draper TL, Ayeroff JR, et al. The contributions of socioeconomic status, perceived stress and depression to disability in adults with systemic lupus erythematosus. Disability and Rehabilitation. 2020;42(9):1264-9.
Hagar M, Roman G, Eitan O, Noam B-Y, Abrham Z, Benjamin S. A tellurium-based small immunomodulatory molecule ameliorates depression-like behavior in two distinct rat models. NeuroMolecular Medicine. 2020;1-10.
Kessler B. The epidemiology of depression across cultures. Annual Review of Public Health. 2013;34:119-38.
Holden C. Global survey examines impact of depression. Science. 2000;288(5463):39-40.
WHO. Depression and other common mental disorders: Global health estimates; 2017.
Lewinsohn PM, Solomon A, Seeley JR, Zeiss A. Clinical implications of "subthreshold" depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 2000;109(2):345.
Moussavi S, Chatterji S, Verdes E, Tandon A, Patel V, Ustun B. Depression, chronic diseases, and decrements in health: Results from the World Health Surveys. The Lancet. 2007;370(9590):851-8.
Katzung BG, Trevor AJ. Basic & clinical pharmacology. SMARTBOOKTM: McGraw Hill Professional; 2014.
Dunleavy D. Rational antidepressant use. BJPsych Bulletin. 2018;42(3):131.
Rahman H, Muralidharan P. Comparative study of antidepressant activity of methanolic extract of Nardostachys jatamansi DC rhizome on normal and sleep deprived mice. De Pharmacia Lettre. 2010;2(5):441-9.
Louw G, Duvenhage A. The Traditional Health Practitioners Act (No 22 of 2007): A South African Constitutional Mishap? 2016.
Singh A, Kumar A, Duggal S. Nardostachys jatamansi DC. potential herb with CNS effects. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Health Care. 2009;1(2).
Sahu R, Dhongade H, Pandey A, Sahu P, Sahu V, Patel D. Medicinal properties of Nardostachys jatamansi (a review). Oriental Journal of Chemistry. 2016;32(2):859-66.
Bhattacharya S, Satyan K, Ramanathan M. Experimental methods for evaluation of psychotropic agents in rodents: II-Antidepressants; 1999.
Willner P. The validity of animal models of depression. Psychopharmacology. 1984;83(1):1-16.
Fox JG. Laboratory animal medicine: Elsevier; 2015.
Thakare MN. Pharmacological screening of some medicinal plants as antimicrobial and feed additives. Virginia Tech; 2004.
Shukla P, Sharma A. Effect of some medicinal plants on growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, multi drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium other than tuberculosis. The Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences. 2013;3(3):199.
Porsolt R, Bertin A, Jalfre M. Behavioral despair in mice: A primary screening test for antidepressants. Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. 1977;229(2):327-36.
Porsolt R, Le Pichon M, Jalfre M. Depression: A new animal model sensitive to antidepressant treatments. Nature. 1977;266(5604):730.
Steru L, Chermat R, Thierry B, Simon P. The tail suspension test: A new method for screening antidepressants in mice. Psychopharmacology. 1985;85(3):367-70.
Svensson T, Thieme G. An investigation of a new instrument to measure motor activity of small animals. Psychopharmacologia. 1969;14(2):157-63.
Ismail MO, Dar A, Faizi S, Abidi L. Antidepressant like actions of Opuntia dillenii butanol fractions in rodents. Pakistan Journal of Pharmacology. 2010;27(2):9-14.
Quinton R. The increase in the toxicity of yohimbine induced by imipramine and other drugs in mice. British Journal of Pharmacology and Chemotherapy. 1963;21(1):51-66.
Ismail MO, Dar A. Comparison of the efficacy of fluoxetine, phenelzine and moclobemide in rodents using animal models of depression. Pak J. of Pharmacol. 2009;26(2):19-23.
Ismail MO, Dar A, Faizi S, Abidi L. Antidepressant like actions of Opuntia dillenii butanol fraction in rodents. Pakistan Journal of Pharmacology. 2010;27(2):9-14.
McGonigle P, Ruggeri B. Animal models of human disease: Challenges in enabling translation. Biochemical Pharmacology. 2014;87(1):162-71.
Petit-Demouliere B, Chenu F, Bourin M. Forced swimming test in mice: A review of antidepressant activity. Psycho-pharmacology. 2005;177(3):245-55.
Deussing JM. Animal models of depression. Drug Discovery Today: Disease Models. 2006;3(4):375-83.
Varghese J, Hotchandani S, Shah SM, Mathew A. The effectiveness of a combination of low dose citalopram and tramadol in reducing immobility time in forced swimming test in mouse model of depression. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2020;64(1):50-8.
Porsolt RD, Anton G, Blavet N, Jalfre M. Behavioural despair in rats: A new model sensitive to antidepressant treatments. European Journal of Pharmacology. 1978;47(4):379-91.
Porsolt RD, Le Pichon M, Jalfre M. Depression: A new animal model sensitive to antidepressant treatments. Nature. 1977;266(5604):730-2.
Almeida J, Duarte JO, Oliveira LA, Crestani CC. Effects of nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor or fluoxetine treatment on depression-like state and cardiovascular changes induced by chronic variable stress in rats. Stress. 2015;18(4):462-74.
Dhingra D, Goyal PK. Inhibition of MAO and GABA: Probable mechanisms for antidepressant-like activity of Nardostachys jatamansi DC. in mice; 2008.
Shreevathsa M, Ravishankar B, Dwivedi R. Anti depressant activity of Mamsyadi Kwatha: An Ayurvedic compound formulation. Ayu. 2013;34(1):113.
Lyle N, Gomes A, Sur T, Munshi S, Paul S, Chatterjee S, et al. The role of antioxidant properties of Nardostachys jatamansi in alleviation of the symptoms of the chronic fatigue syndrome. Behavioural Brain Research. 2009;202(2):285-90.
Rahman H, Muralidharan P. Comparative study of antidepressant activity of methanolic extract of Nardostachys Jatamansi DC rhizome on normal and sleep deprived mice. De Pharmacia Lettre. 2010;2(5):441-9.
Suresh R, Selvan AT, Johnson DB, Kumar RS, Venkatanarayanan R, Sivakumar L. Antidepressant activity of polyherbal extract on rodents. International Journal of Pharmacology and Biological Sciences. 2013;7(1):25.
Razack S, Khanum F. Anxiolytic effects of Nardostachys jatamansi DC in mice. Annals of Phytomedicine. 2012;1(2):67- 73.
Razack S, Kandikattu HK, Venuprasad M, Amruta N, Khanum F, Chuttani K, et al. Anxiolytic actions of Nardostachys jatamansi via GABA benzodiazepine channel complex mechanism and its biodistribution studies. Metabolic Brain Disease. 2018;33(5):1533-49.
Seibenhener ML, Wooten MC. Use of the open field maze to measure locomotor and anxiety-like behavior in mice. JoVE (Journal of Visualized Experiments). 2015;96:e52434.
Mude G, Pise S, Makade K, Fating R, Wakodkar S. Potentiating effect of N. Jatamansi root extract by evaluating anti-depression and anxiolytic activity in rats. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2020;9(3):1734-8.
Wang B, Wang Y, Wu Q, Huang H-P, Li S. Effects of α2A adrenoceptors on norepinephrine secretion from the locus coeruleus during chronic stress-induced depression. Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2017;11:243.
Bourin M. Developing therapies for treatment-resistant depressive disorder in animal models. Treatment Resistance in Psychiatry: Springer. 2019;79-86.
Abstract View: 62 times
PDF Download: 45 times