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Background: Moringa oleifera plant parts extract have been utilized tremendously in traditional medicine, having various pharmaceutical activities such as antifungal, antibacterial and antiviral properties.
Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate antiviral activity of aqueous extract of Moringa leaves, seeds and flowers against Polio virus isolates (Vaccine Strains P1&P3), MDG-17-04852; MDG-17-04881.
Study Design: This is a baseline study carried out to determine the efficacy of Moringa oleifera in the treatment of poliomyelitis.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital Maiduguri and Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi from September 2018 to October, 2019.
Methods: Phytochemical substances was extracted and screened from the Moringa using standard laboratory techniques. Continuous cell line L20B cells was used to isolate polio virus. Polio virus stock was prepared and titration was carried out to determine TCID50 by Kerber’s formula, L-d(S - 0.5). Cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated using the end-point cytopathic effect assay. Antiviral assay and Polio virus Intratypic Differentiation (ITD) was performed using Real-Time PCR.
Results: The results revealed present of Tannins in leaves and flowers, Alkaloids and Saponins in all the extracts, Glycosides and Steroids in leaves and Flavonoids in flowers only. Cytotoxicity of the extracts shows 50% effects in 100mg and 50mg concentrations, while 33.3% and 16.7% was observed in 25mg and 12.5mg (P>.05). The titration of the tissue culture infective dose 50% (TCID50) shows that Polio virus type 1and 3 had a titre value of 106.5 and 106.25 respectively. The ITD results observed presence of Sl1 and Sl3 from the extracts.
Conclusion: This study found that the Moringa extracts did not neutralized the Polio virus strains studied, as the phytochemicals show no antiviral activity. Therefore further study is needed in this area to ascertain its antiviral potentials against poliomyelitis.
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