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Uvariachamae (vernacular; mmimiohia) belongs to the family Annonaceae. It is a small tree that grows wild to about 4.5 meters in the savanna and rain forest regions of Nigeria and other African countries. It is known to possess various medicinal and therapeutic properties. The biochemical and toxicological effects of its ethanolic leaf extract on Wistar albino rats were assessed in this study. Twenty albino rats grouped into 4 (5 animals in each group) were used. Group A served as control while groups B, C, D received 250, 500 and 1 000mg/kg body weight of the extract for a period of 30 days. The mean alkaline phosphatase activity of the control was 350±11.0Iu/l as against 490±38.00, 630±60, and 370±20 for groups B, C, and D (p =0.01, ˃0.05, 0,001) respectively. The mean serum urea concentration of the control was 5.00±0.19mg/dl as against 3.80±0.31, 3.30±0.28 and 3.50±0.18mg/dl (p=0.01, 0.001, 0.001) for groups B, C, D respectively. The extract had no significant effects on the liver enzymes, ALT and AST, serum sodium, potassium, chloride as well as creatinine of the rats. Serum bicarbonate was raised significantly, 26.00±0.53, 28.00±0.60, 27.00±1.10, 29.00±1.10 for groups B, C, D (p= 0.042, ˃0.05, 0.043) respectively. Histological studies showed no abnormality in the kidneys and mild peri-portal lymphocytic infiltration of the liver. Phytochemical analyses of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, resins, proteins terpenoids and reducing sugar. Hence, ethanolic extract of leaves of Uvaria chamae has no serious deleterious effects on Wistar albino rats and may be safely used in traditional medical practice.
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