Main Article Content
Introduction: Ethyl alcohol and its metabolites even in low concentrations negatively affectsan embryo and a fetus.Interest to the role of the lipid peroxidation-antioxidant defense (LPO-AOD) system has significantly increased in recent years, because this system imbalanceleads to the development of oxidative stress (OS), which is accompanied by body's resistance decreaseto the adverse environmental and internal factors negative influence, which is one of the most important triggers of so-called free radical pathology.
Aim: The aim of research was to determine the concentration and activity of the metabolic system components “lipid peroxidation-antioxidant defense” (LPO-AOD) and the glutathione system components in pregnant women who consumed no more than 2 doses of low-strength alcoholic beverages (beer, champagne, wine) during the first half of pregnancy and their newborns.
Methods: The design of the study was prospective and controlled randomized. The study involved 170 pregnant women who were observed in the regional perinatal center of Irkutsk. Two women refused to participate in the study. The main group consisted of 93 women who drank low alcohol beverages (beer, champagne and wine) in the first half of pregnancy (for a period of 7-20 weeks of pregnancy). The control group composed of 75 women who did not drink alcohol throughout their pregnancy. In both groups of women for a period of 30-32 weeks of pregnancy, the parameters of the LPO-AOD and glutathione systems had been determined. Similarly, cord blood had been sampled in 66 control group newborns and 53 newborns whose mothers drank alcohol in the first half of pregnancy (main group). Statistical processing of the research results was performed. Statistical processing of the results obtained had been carried out using the software package STATICTICA 10 Stat Soft Inc, USA (license holder - Scientific Centre for Family Health and Human Reproduction Problems) using the T - student and Mann-Whitney test methods.
Results: The study revealed the influence of the use of low alcohol beverages (beer, champagne and wine) in an amount of no more than 2 doses on the state of the LPO-AOD and glutathione systems in the blood serum and red blood cells of pregnant women and their newborns. It was found that even a single intake of low alcohol beverages is accompanied byoxidative stress development in women and their newborns. The state of the glutathione system in pregnant women is characterized by a decrease in the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione reductase (GR) activity with an increase in the oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) levels. In newborns, a decrease in GSH is associated with a decrease in the of GR, GST, and glutathione peroxidase (GPO) activity.
Conclusion: Analyzing the data, in distant perspective the negative role of even small doses of low alcohol (beer, champagne and wine) on pregnant women and their newborns metabolism was established.
Kolesnikov SI, Ivanov VV, Semenyuk AV. Pregnancy and toxicants. Novosibirsk, Nauka Publishing House. 1986;159.
Kolesnikov SI, Semenyuk AV, Grachev SV. Imprinting the effects of toxicants in embryogenesis. Moscow. Medical Information Agency. 1999;263.
Kolesnikova LI, Darenskaya MA, Kolesnikov SI. Free radical oxidation: A view of a pathophysiologist. Bulletin of Siberian Medicine. 2017;16(4):16-29.
Balachova T, Bonner B, Chaffin M, Bard D, Isurina G, Tsvetkova L, Volkova E. Women's alcohol consumption and risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancies in Russia. Addiction. 2012; 107(1):109–11. Available:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03569.x
Kristjanson AF, Wilsnack SC, Zvartau E, Tsoy M, Novikov B. Alcohol use in pregnant and nonpregnant Russian women. Alcoholism Clinical & Experimental Research. 2007;31(2):299–307. Available:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2006.00315.x
Traumatic disease and its sequela: ed. Selezneva SA. St. Petersburg: Polytechnic. 2004;414.
Franco R, Cidlowski JA. Apoptosis and glutathione: Beyond an antioxidant. Cell Death Differ. 2009;16:1303-1314.
Hernandez JA, Lopez-Sanchez RC, Rendon-Ramirez A. Lipids and oxidative stress associated with ethanol-induced neurological damage. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2016; 1543809. DOI: 10.1155/2016/1543809
Darenskaya MA, Kolesnikov SI, Rychkova LR, Grebenkina LA, Kolesnikova LI. Oxidative stress and antioxidant defense parameters in different diseases: Ethnic aspects. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2018;120(20):60. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiom-ed.2018.04.199
Popova S, Lange S, Probst C, Gmel G, Rehm J. Estimation of national, regional, and global prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy and fetal alcohol syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Global Health. 2017; 5(3):290-299. DOI: 10.1016/S2214-109X(17)30021-9
Popova S, Yaltonskaya A, Yaltonsky V, Kolpakov Y, Abrosimov I, Pervakov K, Tanner V, Rehm J. What research is being done on prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in the Russian research community? Alcohol and Alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire). 2014; 49(1):84–95. DOI: 10.1093/alcalc/agt156
Marianian A, Atalyan A, Bohora S, Darenskaya M, Grebenkina L, Kolesnikova L, Kolesnikov S, Mikhaylevich I, Protopopova N, Stockett M, Yamaoka Y, Balachova T. The effect of low alcohol consumption during pregnancy on the lipid peroxidation-antioxidant defense system of women, their alcohol-exposed infants, and growth, health, and developmental outcomes. Journal of Birth Defects Research. 2019;1-13. ISSN: 2472-1727; Q2; IF-1.69; SJR:0.71). DOI: 10.1002/bdr2.1582
Lash LH. Mitochondrial glutathione transport: physiological, pathological and toxicological implications. Chemico-Biological Interactions. 2006;163(1-2):54-67. DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2006.03.001
Maisto SA, Connors GJ. Using subject and collateral reports to measure alcohol consumption. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 1992.
World Health Organization. Global status report on alcohol and health 2018. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2018;450.
Wu D, Cederbaum AI. Oxidative stress and alcoholic liver disease. Seminars in Liver Disease. 2009;29(2):141-154. DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1214370
Niki E. Lipid peroxidation: Physiological levels and dual biological effects. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2009;47(5): 469-484. DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.05.032
Oakley A. Glutathione transferases: A structural perspective. Drug Metabolism Reviews. 2011;43(2):138-151. DOI: 10.3109/03602532.2011.558093
Mueller A, Koebnick C, Binder H, Hoffmann I, Schild RL, Beckmann MW, Dittrich R. Placental defence is considered sufficient to control lipid peroxidation in pregnancy. Medical Hypotheses. 2005; 64(3):553-557. DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2004.08.008
Towsend DM, Tew KD, Tapiero H. The importance of glutathione in human disease. Biomed. Pharmacother. 2003;57: 145-157.
Sobell LC, Sobell MB. Alcohol Consumption Measures. Assessing alcohol problems. A Guide for Clinicians and Researchers; 2004. Available:https://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/AssessingAlcohol/measures.htm
Alvik A, Haldorsen T, Groholt B, Lindemann R. Alcohol consumption before and during pregnancy comparing concurrent and retrospective reports. Alcoholism Clinical & Experimental Research. 2006;30(3):510–515. Available:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2006.00055.x
Babor TF, Steinberg K, Anton R, Del Boca F. Talk is cheap: Measuring drinking outcomes in clinical trials. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. 2000; 61(1):55–63.
Kesmodel U, Kesmodel PS, Larsen A, Secher NJ. Use of alcohol and illicit drugs among pregnant Danish women. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. 2003;31(1):5–11.
Kolesnikova LI, Kolesnikov SI, Darenskaya MA, Grebenkina LA, Semenova NV, Vanteeva OV. Antioxidant status in reproductive age women with diabetes mellitus type 1. Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics. 2016;18:128-129.
Kolesnikova LI, Darenskaya MA, Grebenkina LA, Labygina AV, Suturina LV, Dolgikh MI, Rinchindorzhieva MP. Activity of lipid peroxidation in infertile women from different populations. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2012; 154(2):203-205.
Kolesnikova LI, Darenskaya MA, Semenova NV, Grebenkina LA, Suturina LV, Dolgikh MI. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection in girls with type 1 diabetes mellitus during reproductive system development. Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania). 2015;51(2):107-111.