Metabolic Changes in Newborns and Women Who Consumed Small Doses of Alcohol in the Prenatal Period

Main Article Content

Anait Yuryevna Marianian
Natalya Vladimirovna Protopopova
Lyubov Ilinichna Kolesnikova

Abstract

Introduction: Ethyl alcohol and its metabolites even in low concentrations negatively affectsan embryo and a fetus.Interest to the role of the lipid peroxidation-antioxidant defense (LPO-AOD) system has significantly increased in recent years, because this system imbalanceleads to the development of oxidative stress (OS), which is accompanied by body's resistance decreaseto the adverse environmental and internal factors negative influence, which is one of the most important triggers of so-called free radical pathology.

Aim: The aim of research was to determine the concentration and activity of the metabolic system components “lipid peroxidation-antioxidant defense” (LPO-AOD) and the glutathione system components in pregnant women who consumed no more than 2 doses of low-strength alcoholic beverages (beer, champagne, wine) during the first half of pregnancy and their newborns.

Methods: The design of the study was prospective and controlled randomized. The study involved 170 pregnant women who were observed in the regional perinatal center of Irkutsk. Two women refused to participate in the study. The main group consisted of 93 women who drank low alcohol beverages (beer, champagne and wine) in the first half of pregnancy (for a period of 7-20 weeks of pregnancy). The control group composed of 75 women who did not drink alcohol throughout their pregnancy. In both groups of women for a period of 30-32 weeks of pregnancy, the parameters of the LPO-AOD and glutathione systems had been determined. Similarly, cord blood had been sampled in 66 control group newborns and 53 newborns whose mothers drank alcohol in the first half of pregnancy (main group). Statistical processing of the research results was performed. Statistical processing of the results obtained had been carried out using the software package STATICTICA 10 Stat Soft Inc, USA (license holder - Scientific Centre for Family Health and Human Reproduction Problems) using the T - student and Mann-Whitney test methods.

Results: The study revealed the influence of the use of low alcohol beverages (beer, champagne and wine) in an amount of no more than 2 doses on the state of the LPO-AOD and glutathione systems in the blood serum and red blood cells of pregnant women and their newborns. It was found that even a single intake of low alcohol beverages is accompanied byoxidative stress development in women and their newborns. The state of the glutathione system in pregnant women is characterized by a decrease in the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione reductase (GR) activity with an increase in the oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) levels. In newborns, a decrease in GSH is associated with a decrease in the of GR, GST, and glutathione peroxidase (GPO) activity.

Conclusion: Analyzing the data, in distant perspective the negative role of even small doses of low alcohol (beer, champagne and wine) on pregnant women and their newborns metabolism was established.

Keywords:
Metabolism, status of LPO-AOD, glutathione, newborns, alcohol.

Article Details

How to Cite
Marianian, A. Y., Protopopova, N. V., & Kolesnikova, L. I. (2020). Metabolic Changes in Newborns and Women Who Consumed Small Doses of Alcohol in the Prenatal Period. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 32(24), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i2430803
Section
Original Research Article

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