Main Article Content
Introduction: Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and its effects on the developing fetus are a serious global healthcare issue. The damage caused by alcohol goes far beyond mother’s health and spreads to the child’s physical and mental health.
Aim of Review: Analysis of existing approaches in organizing the necessary rehabilitation programs and preventing the consequences of drinking alcohol during pregnancy, assessing the potential socio-economic effect of organizing comprehensive prevention of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal-alcohol spectrum of disorders (FASD).
Materials and Methods: Children with FAS and influence of consequences of FAS/FASD on the nation’s material well-being conducted in Russia and abroad were analyzed by studying various published literature. Necessary rehabilitation measures for children with FAS/FASD were identified; analyzed international studies on the economic implications of the FAS/FASD; economic costs for medical and correctional services for children with FAS/FASD in Russia were assessed.
Results: This review found that the Not all children with FAS/FASD are mentally retarded, they have behavioral disorders and the development of the emotional-volitional sphere is significantly behind the age norms. So, at 10-12 years of age, these children are still not contractual and cannot remain without adult supervision even for several hours. They require ongoing parental or tutor support. The range of disorders in fetal alcohol syndrome is very diverse, therefore, each child requires an individual approach in the formation of a rehabilitation program, which significantly increases costs in general and requires the involvement of highly qualified specialists.
Conclusion: There is a need for additional economic calculations to scale up a comprehensive prevention program throughout the country. It is also important to note that the implementation of preventive measures does not eliminate the need for organizing assistance programs for families raising children with FAS/FASD.
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Helping patients who drink too much: A clinician's guide; 2005. Available:https://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/practitioner/cliniciansguide2005/clinicians_guide.htm
Popova S, Lange S, Probst C, Gmel G, Rehm J. Estimation of national, regional, and global prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy and fetal alcohol syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis // The Lancet Global Health. 2017;5(3):290-299. DOI:10.1016/S2214-109X(17)30021-9.
Popova S, Yaltonskaya A, Yaltonsky V, Kolpakov Y, Abrosimov I, Pervakov K, Tanner V, Rehm J. What research is being done on prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in the Russian research community? // Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire). 2014;49(1):84–95. DOI:10.1093/alcalc/agt156.
World Health Organization. Global status report on alcohol and health. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2018;450.
Jones KL, Smith DW, Ulleland CN, Streissguth AP. Pattern of malformation in offspring of chronic alcoholic mothers. Lancet 1973;1:1267-71.
Protopopova NV. Influence of Alcohol on the Fetus and Pregnancy Outcome. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum of Disorders / Protopopova N. V., Kolesnikova L. I., Marianian A. Yu. // Bulletin of the East Siberian Scientific Center of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ESSC SB RAS). 2013;6(94):187–192.
Jennifer D, Thomas D, Kenneth R, Warren D, Brenda G. Hewitt Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders From Research to Policy Alcohol Res Health. 2010;33(1-2):118–126.
Marianian A, Atalyan A, Bohora S, Darenskaya M, Grebenkina L, Kolesnikova L, Kolesnikov S, Mikhaylevich I, Protopopova N, Stockett M, Yamaoka Y, Balachova T. The effect of low alcohol consumption during pregnancy on the lipid peroxidation-antioxidant defense system of women, their alcohol-exposed infants, and growth, health, and developmental outcomes // Journal of Birth Defects Research. 2019;1-13. (Web of science, Scopus, Online ISSN:2472-1727; Q2; IF-1.69; SJR:0.71;DOI:10.1002/bdr2.1582).
Marianian AY, Kolesnikova LI, Protopopova NV, Burina EA, Kalinkina ОB. Awareness of doctors about the problem of fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol spectrum of disorders in Irkutsk // Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 2018;42(6):74.(Web of science, Q2; IF 2.829.DOI.org/10.1111/acer.13747).
Skagerstrуm J, Chang G, Nilsen P. Predictors of drinking during pregnancy: A systematic review. Journal of Women's Health. 2011;20(6):901–913. Available:https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2010.2216
Warren KR, Bast RJ. Alcohol-related birth defects: an update. Public Health Rep. 1988;103(6):638-42.
Bandoli G, Coles CD, Kable JA, Wertelecki W, Yevtushok L, Zymak-Zakutnya N, Chambers CD. Patterns of prenatal alcohol use that predict infant growth and development. Pediatrics. 2019;143(2):20182399. Available:https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-2399
Hemingway SJA, Bledsoe MJ, Davies KJ, Brooks A, Jirikowic T, Olson MEC. Thorne J. Twin study confirms virtually identical prenatal alcohol exposures can lead to markedly different fetal alcohol spectrum disorder outcomes-fetal genetics influences fetal vulnerability // Advances in Pediatric Research. 2018;05:03. DOI:10.24105/apr.2019.5.23.
Kosyh EA, Balachova T, Bonner B, et al. Alcohol consumption by pregnant women in the Nizhny Novgorod region, Russia // Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2010;34:111.
Yaltonskaya АV, Yaltonsky VМ, Kolpakov YaV [et al.]. Consumption of Alcohol during Pregnancy and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in Russia: a Systemic Review of Literature // Narcology. 2014;(6):81–90.
Malakhova ZhL. Clinical and pathogenic basis for fetal alcohol syndrome in early childhood, Ekaterinburg City, Medical Dissertations; 2012. Available:http://medical-diss.com/medicina/kliniko-patogeneticheskie-osnovy-fetalnogo-alkogolnogo-sindroma-u-detey-rannego-vozrasta#ixzz6F3zlNNwo
Palchik AB. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: manifestations and dynamics / Palchik A. B., Legonkova S. V. // V. M. Bekhterev Review of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology. 2011(3):17–20.
Starodubov VI, Varavikova ЕA. Alcohol Health Damage and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Prevention Coordination Board at FSBI CSRIHOIMH. Available:https://mednet.ru/mezhdunarodnaya-deyatelnost/koordinatsionnyj-sovet-fasn
Fetal alcohol Spectrum Disorder Caregiver Success Support Group Available:https://www.facebook.com/groups/FASDFOREVER/?ref=group_header
Making Sense of the Madness and FASD Survival Guide by Jeff Noble of FASDFOREVER.COM and Tara Soucie, BA, BSW.
The Family Improvement Network: A Service Model to Address the Needs of Children and Families Affected by Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Dis¬orders / Wilton G., Plane M.B.et al. // Pediatric Nursing. 2006;32(4):299–310.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Support Group for Parents. Available:https://www.facebook.com/groups/1263627697115550/?ref=group_header
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Guidelines for Referral and Diagnosis. Available:http://netfas.net/pro/index.php?page=11
Molchanova ЕV. Experience of Working with FAS Children;2016. Available:https://old.mednet.ru/images/stories/files/obrachenie__mednet.pdf
Molchanova ЕV. Experience of Adopting a FAS Child; 2013. Available:https://old.mednet.ru/images/stories/files/fas/Molchanova_fas_09_09_2013.pdf
Cook JL, Green CR, Lilley CM, Anderson SM, Baldwin ME, Chudley AE, Conry JL, LeBlanc N, Loock CA, Lutke J, Mallon BF, Mc Farlane AA, Temple VK, Rosales T. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: A guideline for diagnosis across the lifespan // CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal=journal de l'Association medicale canadienne. 2016;188(3):191–197. DOI:10.1503/cmaj.141593.
Hoyme HE, Kalberg WO, Elliott AJ, Blankenship J, Buckley D, Marais AS, Manning MA, Robinson LK, Adam MP, Abdul-Rahman O, Jewett T, Coles CD, Chambers C, Jones KL, Adnams CM, Shah PE, Riley EP, Charness ME, Warren KR, May PA. Updated Clinical Guidelines for Diagnosing Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders // Pediatrics. 2016;138(2). DOI:10.1542/peds.2015-4256.
Dikke GB. A Necessity to Shift Health Care Paradigm toward Extensive Prevention. / Dikke, G.B. // Effective pharmacological therapy in obstetrics and gynecology. 2011(3):4–8.
Dikke GB. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Spectrum Disorders / Dikke G. B; Eropheyeva L. V. //Pharmateca. 2012(12):26–30.
Alcohol as a Factor Affecting the Fetus. Occurrence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome / Marianian A. Yu., Protopopova N. V., Kolesnikova L. I. [et al.] // Siberian Medical Magazine. 2013;122(7):5– 9.
Robert M, Carceller A, Domken V. et al. Physical and neurodevelopmental evaluation children adopted from Eastern Eu¬rope / // Can. J.Clin. Pharrnacol. 2009;16:432–440.
Balashova ТN, Isurina GL, Palchik АB, Shapkaits VА, Ioffe АМ, Regentova АYu. Research and FAS prevention team. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Guidelines for Referral and Diagnosis; 2009.
Balashova T, Bonner B, Chaffin M, Bard D, Isurina G, Tsvetkova L, Volkova E. Women's alcohol consumption and risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancies in Russia. Addiction. 2012;107(1):109–11. Available:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03569.x
Alvik A, Haldorsen T, Groholt B, Lindemann R. Alcohol consumption before and during pregnancy comparing concurrent and retrospective reports. Alcoholism Clinical & Experimental Research. 2006;30(3):510–515. Available:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2006.00055.x
Burina EA, Kulieva AK, Marianian AY. The risk of fetal alcohol syndrome in pregnant women and women planning pregnancy // Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 2018;42(6):75.(Web of science, Q2; IF 2.829;DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/acer.13833).
Marianian AYu, Kuzmin MYu, Atalyan AV, Markova DP, Suturina LV. Alcoholic Behaviour and Assessment of the Quality of Life of Reproductive Age Women in Eastern Siberia. Advances in Health Sciences Research. 2019;179-182. (https://doi.org/10.2991/ichw-19.2019.42; ISSN (Online): 2468-5739; https://www.atlantis-press.com/proceedings/ichw-19/125920970.Copyright © 2019, the Authors. Published by Atlantis Press. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).
O'Connor MJ, Whaley SE. Brief intervention for alcohol use by pregnant women. AmericanJournalofPublicHealth. 2007;97(2):252–258. Available:https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2005.077222
Bertrand J, Floyd RL, Weber MK, O’Connor M, Riley EP, Johnson KA, Cohen DE, National Task Force on FAS/FAE. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Guidelines for Referral and Diagnosis. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2004. (Russian translation and reviewed original version).
Danis RP, Newton N, Keith L. Pregnancy and alcohol. CurrProblObstet Gynecol. 1981;4(6):2-48.
Marilyn G. Klug Larry Burd, Fetal alcohol syndrome prevention: annual and cumulative cost savings Department of Pediatrics, North Dakota Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Center, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, 501 N. Columbia Road, Grand Forks, ND 58203, USA, Accepted 11 July 2003, Available online? 9 October, 2003
Svetlana Popova, Shannon Lange, Larry Burd, Jürgen RehmThe Economic Burden of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in Canada in 2013 Alcohol and Alcoholism. 2016;51(3):367– 375. Available:https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agv117, Available:https://academic.oup.com/alcalc/article/51/3/367/2888203
Price list as of Russian Pediatric Clinical Hospital; 2020. Available:https://rdkb.ru/files/price-2020-1.pdf