Cytotoxic Effect and Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles and Hafnium Metal Based Composite: Two Sides of the Same Coin- An In vitro Study
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International,
Chitosan (CTS) is a biocompatible polymer that has been widely researched for tissue engineering purposes. It has demonstrated a significant role in bone tissue engineering in the last two decades. Being a natural polymer obtained from chitin, a major component of crustacean exoskeleton, it has varied uses. Lately, attention has been given to chitosan composite materials due to its minimal foreign body reactions, antibacterial nature, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and the ability to be molded into various shapes and forms. It can be used as porous structures, suitable for cell ingrowth and osteoconduction. The aim of this research was to assess the biocompatibility of a chitosan nanoparticle and hafnium metal-based composite and project its use for bone tissue engineering. In the present study, we have prepared chitosan nanoparticles and their based hafnium composite and it was analyzed for its cytotoxic effect using brine shrimp lethality assay and antimicrobial activity using the disc diffusion method. There was a significant difference between the concentrations used (p<0.01), when One way ANOVA statistical analysis was performed. The current study substantiates the antimicrobial activity and highlights the possible cytotoxicity of the CTS and hafnium composite.
- cytotoxic effect
- antimicrobial activity
- brine shrimp lethality assay
How to Cite
Hallman M, Thor A. Bone substitutes and growth factors as an alternative/complement to autogenous bone for grafting in implant dentistry. Periodontol. 2000-2008;47:172–92.
Rajaraman V, Dhanraj M, Jain AR. Dental implant biomaterials–Newer metals and their alloys. Drug Invention Today. 2018;10(6):986-9.
Murphy W, Black J, Hastings G. Handbook of Biomaterial Properties. Springer. 2016; 676.
LeGeros RZ. Properties of osteoconductive biomaterials: Calcium phosphates. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2002; 395:81–98.
Saber-Samandari S, Saber-Samandari S. Biocompatible nanocomposite scaffolds based on copolymer-grafted chitosan for bone tissue engineering with drug delivery capability. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2017;75:721–32.
Jin HH, Kim DH, Kim TW, Shin KK, Jung JS. In vivo evaluation of porous hydroxyapatite/chitosan–alginate composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. International Journal of [Internet]; 2012.
Pramanik N, Mishra D, Banerjee I, Maiti TK. Chemical synthesis, characterization, and biocompatibility study of hydroxyapatite/chitosan phosphate nanocomposite for bone tissue engineering. International Journal of [Internet]; 2009.
Riva R, Ragelle H, des Rieux A, Duhem N, Jérôme C, Préat V. Chitosan and Chitosan Derivatives in Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering. In: Jayakumar R, Prabaharan M, Muzzarelli RAA, editors. Chitosan for Biomaterials II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 2011;19–44.
Kim IY, Seo SJ, Moon HS, Yoo MK, Park IY, Kim BC, et al. Chitosan and its derivatives for tissue engineering applications. Biotechnol Adv. 2008;26(1): 1–21.
Rodríguez-Vázquez M, Vega-Ruiz B, Ramos-Zúñiga R, Saldaña-Koppel DA, Quiñones-Olvera LF. Chitosan and Its Potential Use as a Scaffold for Tissue Engineering in Regenerative Medicine. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015: 821279.
Croisier F, Jérôme C. Chitosan-based biomaterials for tissue engineering. Eur Polym J. 2013;49(4):780–92.
Mathur NK, Narang CK. Chitin and chitosan, versatile polysaccharides from marine animals. J Chem Educ. 1990; 67(11):938.
Kim S-K. Chitin and Chitosan Derivatives: Advances in Drug Discovery and Developments. CRC Press. 2013;527.
Crini G. Historical review on chitin and chitosan biopolymers. Environ Chem Lett. 2019;17(4):1623–43.
Nimesh S. Chitosan nanoparticles [Internet]. Gene Therapy. 2013;163–96.
Ravi Kumar MNV. A review of chitin and chitosan applications. React Funct Polym. 2000;46(1):1–27.
Dutta PK, Dutta J, Tripathi VS. Chitin and chitosan: Chemistry, properties and applications; 2004.
Dodane V, Vilivalam VD. Pharmaceutical applications of chitosan. Pharm Sci Technolo Today. 1998;1(6):246–53.
Crini G, Lichtfouse E. Sustainable Agriculture Reviews 36: Chitin and Chitosan: Applications in Food, Agriculture, Pharmacy, Medicine and Wastewater Treatment. Springer. 2019;428.
Mourya VK, Inamdar NN. Chitosan-modifications and applications: Opportunities galore. React Funct Polym. 2008;68(6):1013–51.
Schemel JH. ASTM Manual on Zirconium and Hafnium. ASTM International. 1977; 96.
Brown PL, Ekberg C, editors. Titanium(IV), Zirconium, Hafnium and Thorium. In: Hydrolysis of Metal Ions. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. 2016;433–98.
Litton FB. Preparation and Some Properties of Hafnium Metal. J Electrochem Soc. 1951;98(12):488.
Fan H, Wang L, Zhao K, Li N, Shi Z, Ge Z, et al. Fabrication, mechanical properties, and biocompatibility of graphene-reinforced chitosan composites. Biomacromolecules. 2010;11(9):2345– 51.
Piotrowska-Kirschling A, Brzeska J. The Effect of Chitosan on the Chemical Structure, Morphology, and Selected Properties of Polyurethane/Chitosan Composites. Polymers [Internet]. 2020; 12(5).
Salmah H, Azieyanti AN. Properties of recycled polyethylene/ chitosan composites: The effect of polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride [Internet]. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites. 2011; 30:195–202.
Anbu RT, Suresh V, Gounder R, Kannan A. Comparison of the Efficacy of Three Different Bone Regeneration Materials: An Animal Study. Eur J Dent. 2019;13(1):22–8.
Ashok V, Ganapathy D. A geometrical method to classify face forms. J Oral Biol Craniofac Res. 2019;9(3):232–5.
Ganapathy DM, Kannan A, Venugopalan S. Effect of Coated Surfaces influencing Screw Loosening in Implants: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. World Journal of Dentistry. 2017;8(6):496–502.
Jain AR. Clinical and Functional Outcomes of Implant Prostheses in Fibula Free Flaps. World Journal of Dentistry. 2017;8(3):171–6.
Ariga P, Nallaswamy D, Jain AR, Ganapathy DM. Determination of Correlation of Width of Maxillary Anterior Teeth using Extraoral and Intraoral Factors in Indian Population: A Systematic Review. World Journal of Dentistry. 2018;9(1):68–75.
Evaluation of Corrosive Behavior of Four Nickel–chromium Alloys in Artificial Saliva by Cyclic Polarization Test:An in vitro Study. World Journal of Dentistry. 2017; 8(6):477–82.
Ranganathan H, Ganapathy DM, Jain AR. Cervical and Incisal Marginal Discrepancy in Ceramic Laminate Veneering Materials: A SEM Analysis. Contemp Clin Dent. 2017;8(2):272–8.
Jain AR. Prevalence of Partial Edentulousness and Treatment needs in Rural Population of South India. World Journal of Dentistry. 2017;8(3):213–7.
Duraisamy R, Krishnan CS, Ramasubramanian H, Sampathkumar J, Mariappan S, Navarasampatti Sivaprakasam A. Compatibility of Nonoriginal Abutments With Implants: Evaluation of Microgap at the Implant-Abutment Interface, With Original and Nonoriginal Abutments. Implant Dent. 2019;28(3):289–95.
Gupta P, Ariga P, Deogade SC. Effect of Monopoly-coating Agent on the Surface Roughness of a Tissue Conditioner Subjected to Cleansing and Disinfection: A Contact Profilometric Study. Contemp Clin Dent. 2018;9(1):122–6.
Varghese SS, Ramesh A, Veeraiyan DN. Blended Module-Based Teaching in Biostatistics and Research Methodology: A Retrospective Study with Postgraduate Dental Students. J Dent Educ. 2019;83(4): 445–50.
Naher S, Aziz MA, Akter MI, Rahman SMM, Sajon SR, Mazumder K. Anti-diarrheal activity and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of methanolic extract of Cordyline fruticosa (L.) A. Chev. leaves. Clinical Phytoscience. 2019;5(1): 15.
Rajeshkumar S, Menon S, Venkat Kumar S, Tambuwala MM, Bakshi HA, Mehta M, et al. Antibacterial and antioxidant potential of biosynthesized copper nanoparticles mediated through Cissus arnotiana plant extract. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2019; 197:111531.
Kumar SV, Venkat Kumar S, Rajeshkumar S. Plant-Based Synthesis of Nanoparticles and Their Impact [Internet]. Nanomaterials in Plants, Algae, and Microorganisms. 2018;33– 57.
Vignesh P, Rajeshkumar S, Lakshmi T, Roy A. Cytotoxic effects of herbal formation mediated silver nanoparticles. Drug Invention Today [Internet]. 2019; 12(11).
Chithralekha B, Rajeshkumar S. Cytotoxic effect of Aloe vera and neem herbal formulations assisted silver nanoparticles. Drug Invention Today [Internet]. 2019; 12(10).
Gaudreau C, Gilbert H. Comparison of disc diffusion and agar dilution methods for antibiotic susceptibility testing of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni and Campylobacter coli. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1997;39(6):707–12.
Kelly LM. Comparison of agar dilution, microdilution, Etest and disc diffusion to test the activity of trovafloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae [Internet]. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 1999;43:707–9.
Er Y, Sivri N, Mirik M. Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil Against Rhizobium (Agrobacterium) vitis Using Agar Well and Disc Diffusion Method [Internet]. Bacteriology Journal. 2018;8:1–11.
Thomsen VF, Frølund Thomsen V. Correlation of the plate-dilution method to the agar diffusion method (disc-and tablet methods) with a special view to the importance of pre-diffusion [Internet]. Acta Pathologica Microbiologica Scandinavica. 2009;54:107–20.
Wang J, Zheng D, Lv C, Zhang R. In vitro cytotoxicity studies on galactosylated chitosan nanoparticles for the delivery of oridonin to liver [Internet]. SDRP Journal of Nanotechnology & Material Science. 2019; 2:68–74.
Biodegradation Studies in Vitro of Novel Poly (adipic anhydride-co-mannitol)-N-maleoyl Chitosan Networks [Internet]. Baghdad Science Journal. 2016;13.
Madeleine M, Guille G, Hunt S. Ultrastructural Staining of Chitin and Chitosan Molecules in vitro [Internet]. Advances in Chitin and Chitosan. 1992; 237–46.
Jennings JA, Bumgardner JD. Chitosan Based Biomaterials. Fundamentals. Woodhead Publishing; 2016;1:342.
Sarah QS, Anny FC, Misbahuddin M. Brine shrimp lethality assay [Internet]. Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology. 2017;12:5.
Anderson LR, May DS, Berkompas CJ, Doyle BJ. Toxicity of Mid-Michigan plant extracts in the brine shrimp lethality assay and the effect of assay methodology on sensitivity [Internet]. BIOS. 2018;89:45.
Mario, Mario M, Lotulung PD, Primahana G, Prima SR, Hanafi M. Synthesis and cytotoxicity assay using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test of Cinchonidine Isobutyrate Ester [Internet]. Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia. 2017;19:29–35.
Socorro MMLD, Del Socorro MML, Bendoy CP, Dacayana CML. Cytotoxic Effects of Betel Vine, Piper betle Linn. Leaf Extracts Using Artemia salina Leach (Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay) [Internet]. Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies. 2014;3.
Handayani SN, Chasani M. Screening of Secondary Metabolites Compounds in Stem Bark of Frangipangi (Plumeria alba) and Toxicity Test on Shrimp Larvae (Brine Shrimp Lethality Test) [Internet]. Jurnal Eksakta. 2011;12.
Zani CL, Chaves PPG, Queiroz R, De Oliveira AB, Cardoso JE, Anjos AMG, et al. Brine shrimp lethality assay as a prescreening system for anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity [Internet]. Phytomedicine. 1995;2:47–50.
IAS AZ, Shahid Shaukat S. Cytotoxicity Assay of Some Fungal Filtrates Using Artemia salina Leach (Brine Shrimp) [Internet]. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2001;4:356–8.
Leena RS, Vairamani M, Selvamurugan N. Alginate/Gelatin scaffolds incorporated with Silibinin-loaded Chitosan nanoparticles for bone formation in vitro [Internet]. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. 2017;158:308–18.
Hong ZQ, Tao LM, Bin ZX. Differentiation of osteoblast-like cells and ectopic bone formation induced by bone marrow stem cells transfected with chitosan nanoparticles containing plasmid-BMP2 sequences [Internet]. Molecular Medicine Reports. 2017;15:1353–61.
Moradikhah F, Doosti-Telgerd M, Shabani I, Soheili S, Dolatyar B, Seyedjafari E. Microfluidic fabrication of alendronate-loaded chitosan nanoparticles for enhanced osteogenic differentiation of stem cells. Life Sci. 2020;254:117768.
Abstract View: 388 times
PDF Download: 254 times