Evaluation of Cytotoxicity of Diclofenac Sodium on L929 Fibroblasts - An in vitro Study
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International,
The aim of the study is to evaluate comparatively the cytotoxicity of diclofenac sodium and calcium hydroxide on L929 fibroblasts. L929 fibroblast cells were cultured and grown on Dulbecco modified Eagle’s medium. Intracanal medicaments tested were Diclofenac sodium, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 mM/ml) and calcium hydroxide. The human fibroblast cell lines cultured in Dulbecco Modified Eagle’s medium were used as control group. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results showed that there was a significant difference in cell viability as compared with the control group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the group treated with diclofenac sodium and calcium hydroxide (1.0 mM/ml). However, diclofenac sodium at concentration more than 5 mM/ml was found to be cytotoxic. The study concludes that diclofenac sodium is cytotoxic at 5 mM/ml and above. Therefore, further studies are recommended to establish the antimicrobial efficacy of the medicament. Within the limitations of the study, Diclofenac sodium at concentration more than 5mM/ml was found to be cytotoxic for the cells. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Diclofenac sodium at which the cells were viable was found to be 5.2 mM/ml. Further studies should be done to establish the antimicrobial efficacy of the medicament at these concentrations.
- Calcium Hydroxide
- diclofenac sodium
- L929 fibroblasts
- MTT assay
How to Cite
Kim D, Kim E. Antimicrobial effect of calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament in root canal treatment: A literature review - Part I. In vitro studies. Restor Dent Endod. 2014;39:241–252.
Kim D, Kim E. Antimicrobial effect of calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament in root canal treatment: A literature review - Part II. in vivo studies. Restor Dent Endod. 2015;40:97–103.
Narayanan LL, Vaishnavi C. Endodontic microbiology. J Conserv Dent. 2010;13:233–239.
Murray PE, Godoy GC, Godoy GF. How is the biocompatibility of dental biomaterials evaluated? Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal (Internet). 2007;12:258–266.
Hauman CHJ, Love RM. Biocompatibility of dental materials used in contemporary endodontic therapy: A review. Part 1. Intracanal drugs and substances. Int Endod J. 2003;36:75–85.
Dianat O, Azadnia S, Mozayeni MA. Toxicity of calcium hydroxide nanoparticles on murine fibroblast cell line. Iran Endod J. 2015;10:49–54.
Siqueira JF Jr, Lopes HP. Mechanisms of antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide: A critical review. Int Endod J. 1999;32:361–369.
Evans M, Davies JK, Sundqvist G, et al. Mechanisms involved in the resistance of Enterococcus faecalis to calcium hydroxide. Int Endod J. 2002;35:221–228.
Ramarao S, Sathyanarayanan U. CRA Grid - A preliminary development and calibration of a paper-based objectivization of caries risk assessment in undergraduate dental education. J Conserv Dent. 2019;22:185–190.
Poorni S, Srinivasan MR, Nivedhitha MS. Probiotic strains in caries prevention: A systematic review. J Conserv Dent. 2019;22:123–128.
Manohar MP, Sharma S. A survey of the knowledge, attitude, and awareness about the principal choice of intracanal medicaments among the general dental practitioners and non endodontic specialists. Indian J Dent Res. 2018;29:716–720.
Azeem RA, Sureshbabu NM. Clinical performance of direct versus indirect composite restorations in posterior teeth: A systematic review. J Conserv Dent. 2018;21:2–9.
Jenarthanan S, Subbarao C. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of diclofenac sodium administered using different delivery routes in the management of endodontic pain: A randomized controlled clinical trial. J Conserv Dent. 2018;21:297–301.
Nandakumar M, Nasim I. Comparative evaluation of grape seed and cranberry extracts in preventing enamel erosion: An optical emission spectrometric analysis. J Conserv Dent. 2018;21:516–520.
Babu MSN, Selvarasu K, V JK, et al. Concentrated growth factors as an ingenious biomaterial in regeneration of bony defects after periapical surgery: A report of two cases. Case Rep Dent. 2019;2019:7046203.
Siddique R, Nivedhitha MS, Jacob B. Quantitative analysis for detection of toxic elements in various irrigants, their combination (precipitate), and para-chloroaniline: An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry study. J Conserv Dent. 2019;22:344–350.
Teja KV, Ramesh S, Priya V. Regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-3 gene expression in inflammation: A molecular study. J Conserv Dent. 2018;21:592–596.
Raja Keerthi R, Ms N. Natural Product as the Storage medium for an avulsed tooth – A Systematic Review. Cumhuriyet Dental Journal. 2019;22:249–256.
Siddique R, Nivedhitha MS. Effectiveness of rotary and reciprocating systems on microbial reduction: A systematic review. J Conserv Dent. 2019;22:114–122.
Janani K, Sandhya R. A survey on skills for cone beam computed tomography interpretation among endodontists for endodontic treatment procedure. Indian J Dent Res. 2019;30:834–838.
Siddique R, Sureshbabu NM, Somasundaram J, et al. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of precipitate formation following interaction of chlorhexidine with sodium hypochlorite, neem, and tulsi. J Conserv Dent. 2019;22:40–47.
Rajendran R, Kunju Sankaran RN, Sandhya R, et al. Comparative evaluation of remineralizing potential of a paste containing bioactive glass and a topical cream containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate: An in vitro study. Pesqui Bras Odontopediatria Clin Integr. 2019;19:1–10.
Govindaraju L, Neelakantan P, Gutmann JL. Effect of root canal irrigating solutions on the compressive strength of tricalcium silicate cements. Clin Oral Investig. 2017;21:567–571.
Khandelwal A, Palanivelu A. Correlation between dental caries and salivary albumin in adult population in Chennai: An In vivo study. BDS. 2019;22:228–233.
Pai ARV, Pai S, Thomas M, et al. Effect of calcium hydroxide and triple antibiotic paste as intracanal medicaments on the incidence of inter-appointment flare-up in diabetic patients: An in vivo study. Journal of Conservative Dentistry. 2014;17:208.
Dastidar SG, Ganguly K, Chaudhuri K, et al. The antibacterial action of diclofenac shown by inhibition of DNA synthesis. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2000;14:249–251.
Anjaneyulu K, Nivedhitha M. Influence of calcium hydroxide on the post-treatment pain in Endodontics: A systematic review. Journal of Conservative Dentistry. 2014;17:200.
Dutta NK, Mazumdar K, Baek MW, et al. In vitro efficacy of diclofenac against Listeria monocytogenes. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008;27:315–319.
Chockattu SJ, Deepak BS, Goud KM. Comparison of antibacterial efficiency of ibuprofen, diclofenac, and calcium hydroxide against Enterococcus faecalis in an endodontic model: An in vitro study. J Conserv Dent. 2018;21:80–84.
Dutta NK, Mazumdar K, Dastidar SG, et al. Activity of diclofenac used alone and in combination with streptomycin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2007;30:336–340.
Salem-Milani A, Balaei-Gajan E, Rahimi S, et al. antibacterial effect of diclofenac sodium on Enterococcus faecalis. J Dent. 2013;10:16–22.
Dutta NK, Annadurai S, Mazumdar K, et al. Potential management of resistant microbial infections with a novel non-antibiotic: The anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2007;30:242–249.
Mazumdar K, Dastidar SG, Park JH, et al. The anti-inflammatory non-antibiotic helper compound diclofenac: An antibacterial drug target. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;28:881–891.
Mizushima T. Molecular mechanism for various pharmacological activities of NSAIDS. Pharmaceuticals. 2010;3:1614–1636.
Maiuri AR, Breier AB, Turkus JD, et al. calcium contributes to the cytotoxic interaction between diclofenac and cytokines. Toxicol Sci. 2016;149:372–384.
Abstract View: 427 times
PDF Download: 345 times