Immunomodulatory Effects of Zinc as a Supportive Strategies for COVID-19

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Nahla A. Tayyib
Pushpamala Ramaiah
Fatmah J. Alsolami
Mohammed S. Alshmemri


Coronaviruses 2019 (Covid-19) is a massive family of viruses that causes respiratory illnesses ranging from the common cold to the most severe conditions such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that represents the humanitarian crisis on a global scale. Currently, there are no therapeutic strategies approved by the U.S.Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to cure or prevent COVID-19. Global research efforts from around the world extrapolate the updates focusing specifically on the biphasic nature of Covid-19 that involve both innate and acquired immunity. Even though researchers around the globe are racing to invent a life-saving therapeutics and vaccines to tackle COVID-19, the only available venture is a supportive approach in rendering treatment to patients with severe and non-severe cases of COVID-19. Supplementation of several vitamins and trace elements showed the expected favorable impact on enhancing immunity in viral infection. Numerous studies prompted the value of zinc (Zn) supplementation that prevents the virus from entering cells by binding with protein in potentiating antiviral immunity, which is realized through different mechanisms, including the improvement in markers of immune function. Zinc is also an associated factor for several enzymes (needed for the activity for over 300 enzymes), transcription factors, and replication factors. Interestingly, low-level zinc results in dysfunction of all immune cells, subjects with altered zinc state have a high risk for infectious disorders, autoimmune disorders, and cancer. Several assumptions regarding immunomodulators of zinc remain unresolved. This review aimed to explore the hypothetical association of Zinc supplementation (the key immunomodulator) in association with a preventive and therapeutic role of treating patients with COVID-19.

Immunomodulator, zinc supplementation, supportive strategies, innate immunity, acquired immunity, COVID-19.

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How to Cite
Tayyib, N. A., Ramaiah, P., Alsolami, F. J., & Alshmemri, M. S. (2020). Immunomodulatory Effects of Zinc as a Supportive Strategies for COVID-19. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 32(13), 14-22.
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