Biomarkers: An Important Tool for Diagnosing and Treating Breast Cancer

Main Article Content

Anil Sharma
Tulshi Chakraborty
Sumeet Gupta
Abhishek Sharma
Pratyay Kumar Pahari

Abstract

Breast cancer is a type of tumor in which individual cases deviate from each other in morphology, protein expression, molecular phenotype, genetic characteristics, and prognosis. Worldwide, breast cancer is the most-common invasive cancer in women. A patient with breast cancer may have the following symptoms:- lumps, skin dimples, nipple discharge, nipple height, nipple withdrawal, pain and burning sensation. There are many causes and risks of breast cancer, including family history (heriditary), obesity, active smoking, early and late childbearing, breast feeding for less than two weeks, exposure to estrogen and oral contraceptive pills. Most breast cancers are diagnosed through estrogen receptor (ER) -positive determination and rely on estrogen for cell growth and survival. Breast cancer treatment has encountered a few progressions in the previous decades with the revelation of explicit prescient prognostic biomarkers that make conceivable the use of individualized treatments. Blocking estrogen biosynthesis by aromatase inhibitors (AI) has, subsequently, become a first-line endocrine treatment for menopausal ladies with ER-positive breast disease. Various conventional diagnosing and treating methods of breast cancer is available but there have limitation of accuracy and treating. For that reason now a day’s various biomarkers like Molecule or Biochemical biomarkers like Estrogen receptor, Progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), human Mammaglobin (H-MAM), Osteopontin, Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2 (FGFR2), Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), Physiologic Biomarkers like Carcinoma Antigen 15-3(CA 15–3), Cancer Antigen 125 (CA 125), Prostate specific antigen (PSA) and Anatomic Biomarkers Oncotype Dx, and Cystic fibrosis Trans-membrane conductance regulator (CFTR). These biomarkers are of great importance in the evaluation and diagnosis process, which leads to better patient’s care and protection of the patients. Due to its various advantages, biomarkers are considered as an innovative tool in the progression of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment.

Keywords:
Breast cancer, breast tumor, biomarkers, BRCA1, BRCA2

Article Details

How to Cite
Sharma, A., Chakraborty, T., Gupta, S., Sharma, A., & Pahari, P. K. (2020). Biomarkers: An Important Tool for Diagnosing and Treating Breast Cancer. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 32(12), 46-54. https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1230559
Section
Review Article

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