Assessment of the Dermal Acute Irritation Potential of Natural Veterinary Medicine Minyak Rajas in Albino Rabbits

Main Article Content

I Made Merdana
Anak Agung Gde Arjana
Sri Kayati Widyastuti
Tisa Tetrania
Ketut Budiasa
Luh Made Sudimartini
I Wayan Sudira

Abstract

Aims: This study was designed to assess the potential for acute dermal irritation of natural veterinary medicine Minyak Rajas (produce by Songgolangit Persada Limited Company, Bali, Indonesia) in albino rabbits. It is a rather thick liquid which contains various medicinal herbal extracts, formulated with effective microorganism technology. This medicine is effective in the treatment of skin infections and inflammation, wounds, intestinal worms and digestive disorder. Additionally, it works for game fowl muscle strengthening.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the Veterinary Pharmacy and Pharmacology Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University, between April 2020 and May 2020.

Methodology: Experimental animals used were three male albino rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in healthy conditions and weighing of >2 Kg. Test procedures followed the guidelines of Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, and chemicals used were applied in a single dose of 0.5 ml on animal skins, with untreated skin as a control.

Results: Very slight erythema was found after the Minyak Rajas application and the lesion was about 48 hours. Overall, no severe erythema, edema or other skin lesions were observed. According to the Amanded Draize system, the Primary Irritation Indexes of 0.16 is categorized as non-irritating.

Conclusion: We conclude that the natural veterinary medicine of Minyak Rajasis safe to be used.

Keywords:
Skin irritation, natural veterinary medicine, Minyak Rajas.

Article Details

How to Cite
Merdana, I. M., Arjana, A. A. G., Widyastuti, S. K., Tetrania, T., Budiasa, K., Sudimartini, L. M., & Sudira, I. W. (2020). Assessment of the Dermal Acute Irritation Potential of Natural Veterinary Medicine Minyak Rajas in Albino Rabbits. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 32(10), 17-24. https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i1030489
Section
Original Research Article

References

Intahphuak S, Khonsung P, Panthong A. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil. Pharm Biol. 2010;48(2):151-157.

DOI:https://doi.org/10.3109/13880200903062614

Praskash J, Pilerood SA. Chemical Composition and antioxidant properties of ginger root (Zingiber officinale). Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2010;4(24): 2674–2679. DOI:https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR09.464

Mao QQ, Xu XY, Cao SY, Gan RY, Corke H, Beta T, Li HB. Bioactive compounds and bioactivities of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Foods. 2019;8(6):185.

DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060185

Kaliyadasa E, Samarasinghe BA. Genus alpinia, a potential power house of bioactives: A review. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2019;10(6):2644-2653. DOI:https://doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232

Amagai Y, Katsuta C, Nomura Y, et al. Amelioration of atopic-like skin conditions in NC/Tnd mice by topical application with distilled Alpinia intermedia Gagnep extracts. J Dermatol. 2017;44(11):1238‐ 1247.

DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/1346-8138.13995

Ahlina FN, Nugraheni N, Salsabila IA, Haryanti S, Da'i M, Meiyanto E. Revealing the reversal effect of galangal (Alpinia galanga L.) extract against oxidative stress in metastatic breast cancer cells and normal fibroblast cells intended as a Co- Chemotherapeutic and anti-ageing agent. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2020;21(1): 107‐117. DOI:https://doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2020.21.1.107

Wibowo DP, Mariani R, Hasanah SU, Aulifa DL. Chemical constituents, antibacterial activity and mode of action of Elephant Ginger (Zingiber officinale var. officinale) and Emprit ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale var. amarum) Essential Oils. Pharmacogn J. 2020;12(2):404-409.

DOI:https://doi.org/10.5530/pj.2020.12.62

Vaughn AR, Branum A, Sivamani RK. Effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa) on skin health: A systematic review of the clinical evidence. Phytother Res. 2016; 30(8):1243‐1264. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5640

Shan CY, Iskandar Y. Studi Kandungan Kimia dan Aktivitas Farmakologi Tanaman Kunyit (Curcuma longa L.). Farmaka. 2018;16(2):547-554. DOI:https://doi.org/10.24198/jf.v16i2.17610.g8793

Simoh S, Zainal A. Chemical profiling of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. Rhizome using different techniques of solvent extraction. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2015;5(5):412–417.

DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(15)30378-6

Ololade ZS, Abam EO, Anuoluwa IA, Abiona OO. Secondary metabolites, pharmacognostic and therapeutic activities of the rhizome extract of Curcuma longa grown in South-West, Nigeria. J Phytopharmacol. 2020;9(1):30-37.

DOI:https://doi.org/10.31254/phyto.2020.9106

Ahmad RS, Hussain MB, Sultan MT, Arshad MS, Waheed M, Shariati MA et al. Biochemistry, safety, pharmacological activities, and clinical applications of turmeric: A mechanistic review. eCAM. 2020;7656919.p:14. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/7656919

Liu RH, Fu LN, Chen LY, Ren G., Chen SS, Chen Z. Chemical constituents and pharmacology study of Imperata cylindrical rhizomes. J. Tradit Chin Med. 2010;22(4): 80-83.

DOI:https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1674-6348.2013.03.011

Anggraeni N, Syamsunarno MRA, Widyastuti R, Puspitasari IM, Praptama S. Potential dual effect anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet of cogon grass ethanol extract on diabetic mice a preliminary study. IOP Conf. Series: J Physics. 2019;1246: 012006.

DOI:https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1246/1/012006

Salehi B, Zakaria ZA, Gyawali R, Ibrahim SA, Rajkovic J, Shinwari ZK, et al. Piper species: A comprehensive review on their phytochemistry, biological activities and applications. Molecules. 2019;24(7):1364.

DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071364

Syahidah A, Saad CR, Hassan MD, Rukayadi Y, Norazian MH, Kamarudin MS. Phytochemical Analysis, Identification and Quantification of Antibacterial Active Compounds in Betel Leaves, Piper betleMethanolic Extract. Pak J Biol Sci. 2017;20(2):70‐81. DOI:https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2017.70.81

Aara A, Chappidi V, Ramadas MN. Antioxidant activity of eugenol in Piper betel leaf extract. J Family Med Prim Care. 2020;9(1):327‐331. DOI:https://doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_809_19

Kato E, Kubo M, Okamoto Y, et al. Safety assessment of bangle (Zingiber purpureum Rosc.) rhizome extract: acute and chronic studies in rats and clinical studies in human. ACS Omega. 2018;3(11):15879‐ 15889. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.8b02485

Anderson SE, Meade BJ. Potential health effects associated with dermal exposure to occupational chemicals. Environ Health Insights. 2014;8(Suppl1):51‐62.

DOI:https://doi.org/10.4137/ehi.s15258

Novak-Bilić G, Vučić M, Japundžić I, Meštrović-Štefekov J, Stanić-Duktaj S, Lugović-Mihić L. Irritant and Allergic Contact Dermatitis - Skin Lesion Characteristics. ActaClin Croat. 2018; 57(4):713-720. DOI:https://doi.org/10.20471/acc.2018.57.04.13

Parasuraman S. Toxicological screening. J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2011;2(2): 74‐79.

DOI:https://doi.org/10.4103/0976-500x.81895

MSDS. Material Safety Data Sheet Saponin. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, Product Safety - Americas Region; 2012.

Available:https://www.nwmissouri.edu/naturalsciences/sds/s/Saponin.pdf

Mathieu RJ, Cheraghi N, Russo MA. Resident Rounds: Part III - Case Report: Betel Quid Induced Irritant Contact Dermatitis of the Hand. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(6):789‐790. Available:https://jddonline.com/articles/dermatology/S1545961616P0789X

Ortega YH, Mosquera DMG, Galapththi S, et al. Safety assessment of a traditionally used extract from leaves of Bol do apurpurascens. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016; 192:302‐308. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.07.009

OECD. Test No. 404: Acute Dermal irritation/corrosion, organisation for economic cooperation and development guidelines for the testing of chemicals, Section 4, OECD Publishing, Paris; 2015.

DOI:https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264242678-en

Ali A, Akhtar N, Mumtaz AM, Khan MS, Iqbal FM, Zaidi SS. In vivo skin irritation potential of a cream containing Moringaoleifera leaf extract. Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2013;15(7):289-93.

DOI:https://doi.org/10.5897/AJPP12.890

Banerjee S, Chattopadhyay P, Ghosh A, Pathak MP, Singh S, Veer V. Acute dermal irritation, sensitization, and acute toxicity studies of a transdermal patch for prophylaxis against ({+/-}) anatoxin-a poisoning. Int J Toxicol. 2013;32(4): 308‐313. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/1091581813489996

Gatne MM, Tambe K, Ravikanth K. Acute dermal irritation study of polyherbal gel Mastilep in rabbits. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2015;6(8):3473. DOI:https://doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.6(8).3473-77

Nyigo VA, Mdegela R, Mabiki F, Malebo HM. Assessment of Dermal Irritation and Acute Toxicity Potential of Extracts from Synadeniumglaucescens on Healthy Rabbits, Wistar Albino Rats and Albino Mice. European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2015;10(4):1-11.

DOI:https://doi.org/10.9734/EJMP/2015/20763

Sari LM, Suyatna FD, Subita GP, Auerkar EI. Acute dermal toxicity study of areca catechu linn. extract in sprague-dawley rats. Asian J Pharm Clin Res [Internet]. 2016;9(9):209-11. DOI:https://doi.org/10.22159/ajpcr.2016.v9s3.14462

UN. Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). Fifth Revised Edition, United Nation, New York and Geneva; 2015.

Available:https://www.osha.gov/dsg/hazcom/ghsguideoct05.pdf

Baldisserotto A, Buso P, Radice M, et al. Moringaoleifera Leaf Extracts as Multifunctional Ingredients for "Natural and Organic" Sunscreens and Photoprotective Preparations. Molecules. 2018;23(3):664.

DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030664

Kolarsick PAJ, Kolarsick MA, Goodwin C. Anatomy and physiology of the skin. Journal of the Dermatology Nurses’ Association. 2011;3(4):203-213.

DOI:https://doi.org/10.1097/JDN.0b013e3182274a98

Berata IK, Winaya IBO, Adi AAAM, AdyanaI BW. Veterinary Pathology. SwastaNulis. Denpasar; 2018.

Sasmito WA, Wijayanti AD, Fitriana I, Sari PW. The acute toxicity test of herbal medicine in mice based on Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Jurnal Sains Veteriner. 2015;33(2):234-239.

DOI:https://doi.org/10.22146/jsv.17924

Sohail T, Yasmeen S, Imran H, Ferheen S, Atiq-u-Rehman, Khan RA. Standardadization and skin irritation potential of herbal analgesic cream containing Nigella sativa seed oil. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science. 2020;19:163-168. DOI:https://doi.org/10.3329/bjms.v19i1.43891