Main Article Content
Introduction: Phlorotannins are bioactive-value polymers existing in brown algae and useful for pharmaceutics and functional food. Therefore, the study focused on the spray drying conditions survey, the evaluation of antioxidant activities, and physico-chemical characterization of antioxidant nano phlorotannin powder prepared from brown algae Sargassum serratum.
Methods: To survey the effect of spray drying conditions (carriers, carrier-to-solution ratio, compressed air pressure, liquid feed speed, inlet air temperature) on antioxidant activities (total antioxidant, reducing power, DPPH free radical scavenging), and physico-chemical (solubility degree, moisture, particle morphology, and bulk density) of antioxidant phlorotannin powder from brown algae Sargassum serratum commonly growing in the Vietnam sea area.
Results: The optimum spray drying condition consisted of the carrier-to-solution ratio of 10%, compressed air pressure of 0.8 bar, the liquid feed speed of 10 ml min-1, and the inlet temperature of 110°C. At the optimization condition, the antioxidant activity of phlorotannin powder possessed total antioxidant (4.347 ± 0.018 g ascorbic acid equivalent 100-1 g DP), reducing power activity (9.390 ± 0.024 g FeSO4 equivalent 100-1 g DP), DPPH free radical scavenging activity ((70.02 ± 0.26)%), physico-chemical of antioxidant phlorotannin powder consisting of moisture content (5 ± 0.5%), phlorotannin content (2.268 ± 0.010 g phloroglucinol equivalent 100-1 g DP), solubility degree (100%), and bulk density (<1 g/ml). Phlorotannin content and antioxidant activities were affected by the spray drying condition (p < 0.05) and a strong correlation to each other (R2 > 0.9). Antioxidant phlorotannin particles possessed nanometer size and the morphology of irregular and microspheres.
Conclusion: Antioxidant nano phlorotannin powder could be usefulas functional food and pharmaceuticals.
Marco N, Balz F, Joseph A, John F. Antioxidants and atherosclerotic heart disease. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:408-416.
Ragan M, Glombitza K. Phlorotannins, brown algal polyphenols. Prog phycol Res. 1986;4:130-230.
Nakamura T, Nagayama K, Uchida K, Tanaka R. Antioxidant activity of phlorotannins isolated from the brown alga Eisenia bicyclis. Fish Sci. 1996;62:923-926.
Toshiyuki S, Kanji I, Shigeo K, Hiromichi Y, Yoichiro H. Antioxidant activities of phlorotannins isolated from Japanese Laminariaceae. J Appl Phycol. 2007;20: 255-261.
Kim A, Shin T, Lee M, Park J, Park K, Yoon N, Kim J, Choi J, Jang B, Byun D, Park N, Kim H. Isolation and identification of phlorotannins from Ecklonia stolonifera with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57: 3483-3489.
WAJP W, Seok-Chun K, You-Jin J. Effect of phlorotannins isolated from Ecklonia cava on angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. Nutr Res Pract. 2011;5:93-100.
Chew Y, Lim Y, Omar M, Khoo K. Antioxidant activity of three edible seaweeds from two areas in South East Asia. LWT-Food Sci Technol. 2008;41: 1067-1072.
Toshiyuki S, Kanji I, Shigeo K, Hiromichi Y, Yoichiro H. Antioxidant activities of phlorotannins isolated from Japanese Laminariaceae. J Appl Phycol. 2007;20: 705-711.
Kang K, Hwang H, Hong D, Park Y, Kim S, Lee B, Shin H. Antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities of ventol, a phlorotannin-rich natural agent derived from Ecklonia cava, and its effect on proteoglycan degradation in cartilage explant culture. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 2004:115-116.
Yoshimasa S, Kohji M, Takashi O, Makoto K, Hideomi A. Anti-allergic effects of the brown alga Eisenia arborea on Brown Norway rats. Fish Sci. 2008;74:180-186.
Felix N, Jennifer M, Victoria A, Derek S, Heather A, Gordon J. Anti-proliferative and potential anti-diabetic effects of phenolic-rich extracts from edible marine algae. Food Chem. 2011;126:1006-1012.
Artan M, Li Y, Karadeniz F, Lee S, Kim M, Kim S. Anti-HIV-1 activity of phloroglucinol derivative, 6,6'-bieckol, from Ecklonia cava. Bioorganic Med Chem. 2008;16:7921-7926.
Mayalen Z, Marie S, Veronique K. Antioxidant and antitumoural activities of some Phaeophyta from Brittany coasts. Food Chem. 2009;116:693-701.
Jong-Sup B. Antithrombotic and profibrinolytic activities of phloroglucinol. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:1572-1577.
Kanti B, Syed I. Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2009;2: 270-278.
Abbott I, J F, KJ McDermid. Taxonomy of economic seaweeds with reference to some Pacific species. La Jolla, CA: California Sea Grant College Program. 2002;281.
Vu NB, Dang XC, Phan TKV. Effects of extraction conditions over the phlorotannin content and antioxidant activity of extract from brown algae Sargassum serratum (Nguyen Huu Dai 2004). Free Radicals and Antioxidants. 2017;7(1):115-122.
Lynn DT. Pharmaceutical and medical device validation by experimental design. New York: Informa Healthcare USA, Inc; 2007.
Dang XC, Vu NB, Tran TTV, Le NH. Effect of storage time on phlorotannin content and antioxidant activity of six Sargassum species from Nhatrang Bay, Vietnam. J Appl Phycol. 2016;28(1):567-572.
Prieto P, Pineda M, Aguilar M. Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: specific application to the determination of vitamin E. Anal Biochem. 1999;269(2):337-341.
Jinapong N, Suphantharika M, Jamnong P. Production of instant soymilk powders by ultrafiltration, spray drying and fluidized bed agglomeration. J Food Eng. 2008; 84:194-205.
Phisut N. Spray drying technique of fruit juice powder: some factors influencing the properties of product. Int Food Res J. 2012;19:1297-1306.
Renata V, Carlos R, Míriam D. Influence of emulsion composition and inlet air temperature on the microencapsulation of flaxseed oil by spray drying. Food Res Int. 2011;44:282-289.
Maruf A, Mst S, Koo-Bok C, Jong-Bang E. Effect of maltodextrin concentration and drying temperature on quality properties of purple sweet potato flour. Food Sci Biotechnol. 2009;18:1487-1494.
Susantikarn P, Donlao N. Optimization of green tea extracts spray drying as affected by temperature and maltodextrin content. Int Food Res J. 2016;23:1327-1331.
Kha TC, Minh HN, Paul D. Effects of spray drying conditions on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis) fruit aril powder. J Food Eng. 2010;98(3):385- 392.
Quek S, Chok N, Swedlund P. The physicochemical properties of spray-dried watermelon powder. Chem Eng Process. 2007;46:386-392.
Praveen K, Awang B. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of morinda citrifolia fruit extracts from various extraction processes. Int J Eng Sci Technol. 2007;2:70-80.
Anjali V, Satya VS. Spray drying of fruit and vegetable juices - A review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2015;55:701-719.
Lee HT, Abdullah LC, K YP, A AR. Optimization of spray drying process parameters of Piper betle L. (Sirih) leaves extract coated with maltodextrin. J Chem Pharm. 2012;4(3):1833-1841.
Sarala M, Velu V, Anandharamakrishnan C, Singh R. Spray drying of Tinospora cordifolia leaf and stem extract and evaluation of antioxidant activity. J Food Sci Technol. 2012;49:119-122.
Dongxiao S, Sandhya S, Geoffrey I. Spray-drying microencapsulation of polyphenol bioactives: A comparative study using different natural fibre polymers as encapsulants. Food Bioprocess Technol. 2013; 6:2376-2388.
Wei-Qiang T, Di-Cai L, Yang-Xiao L, Jian-Guo J. Concentration and drying of tea polyphenols extracted from green tea using molecular distillation and spray drying. Dry Technol. 2011;29:584-590.
Zhongxiang F, Bhesh B. Effect of spray drying and storage on the stability of bayberry polyphenols. Food Chem. 2011; 129:1139-1147.
Moreno T, E dP, I N, S R-R, A M, C D, M S-B, M.J C. Spray drying formulation of polyphenols-rich grape marc extract: evaluation of operating conditions and different natural carriers. Food Bioprocess Technol. 2016;9:2046-2058.
Qiuju Z, Zhang Y, Montazerian M, Gulbiten O, John CM, Edgar DZ, Yuanzheng Y. Understanding glass through differential scanning calorimetry. Chem Rev. 2019;119(13):7848–7939.
Agata G, Karolina S, Ewa O-L, Joanna B, Magdalena W-W. Effect of composition and drying method on glass transition temperature, water sorption characteristics and surface morphology of newly designed β-lactoglobulin/retinyl palmitate/disaccharides systems. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2017;130:177-185.
Go´rska A, Szulc K, Ostrowska-Lige˛za E, Wirkowska M, Brys´ J. The influence of trehalose-maltodextrin and lactose-maltodextrin matrices on thermal and sorption properties of spray-dried b-lactoglobulin-vitamin D3 complexes. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2013;112:429-436.
Jakubczyk E, Ostrowska-Lige˛za E, Gondek E. Moisture sorption characteristics and glass transition temperature of apple puree powder. Int J Food Sci Technol. 2010;45:2515-2523.
Go´rska A, Ostrowska-Lige˛za E, Szulc K, Wirkowska M. A differential scanning calorimetric study of b-lactoglobulin and vitamin D3 complexes. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2012;110(1):473-477.
John C. Interpretation of Infrared Spectra, A practical approach. In: Robert AM, editor. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. New York, United States. John Wiley & Sons; 2007.
Rengasamy RRK, Rajasekaran A, Perumal A. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of seagrass polyphenols. Current Bioactive Compounds. 2011;7:118-125.
Hong Y, Joseph I, Manish M. Discriminant analysis of edible oils and fats by FTIR, FT-NIR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. Food Chem. 2005;93:25-32.
Senthilkumar S, Sivakumar T, Arulmozhi K, Mythili N. FT-IR analysis and correlation studies on the antioxidant activity, total phenolics and total flavonoids of Indian commercial teas (Camellia sinensis L.) - A novel approach. International Research Journal of Biological Sciences. 2017;6(3):1-7.
Mayra AP-C, Horacio G-R. Study by infrared spectroscopy and thermogravi-metric analysis of Tannins and Tannic acid. Rev latinoam quím. 2011;39(3):107-112.
Luca P. Advances in nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, theoretical modelling, and applications. Switzerland: MDPI. 2020;144.
Mahendra KT, Alice B, Dahryn T, Harish S, Khemraj B, Snehasis J. Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopic characterization of biofield treated salicylic acid and sparfloxacin. Nat Prod Chem Res. 2015;3:186-193.
Showkat AB, Tham SS, Mohammad NMI. Synthesis of molecular imprinting polymers for extraction of gallic acid from urine Chem Cent J. 2018;12:19-26.
Yang R. Analytical methods for polymer characterization: CRC Press; 2018;319.
Poonam M, Anjali B, Dibyakant S. Physicochemical, functionality and storage stability of hog plum (Spondia pinnata) juice powder produced by spray drying. J Food Sci Technol. 2017;54(5):1052-1061.
Marco P, Bahar A, Alessandro AC, Alberto L, Rodolfo B, Patrizia P. Microen-capsulation of phenolic compounds from olive pomace using spray drying: A study of operative parameters. LWT-Food Sci Technol. 2015;62(1):177-186.
Danijel DMcc, Dušanka APc, Steva MLc, Aleksandar ŽKc, Živoslav LTc, Viktor ANc, Mirjana BPc. Review: Application of polyphenol-loaded nanoparticles in food industry. Nanomaterials. 2019;9:1629-1650.