Sleeping Duration, Bedtime and BMI and Their Rapport on Academic Performance among Adolescents

Main Article Content

Walid Abu Rayyan
Shadi Salem
Wael Abu Dayyih
Aseel Al Shawareb
Riad Awad
Yazan S. Batarseh
Hisham Y. Al Matubsi


Background: Proper development of cognitive skills during childhood is substantially connected with adequate sleeping. Sleeping is drastically undergoing pattern changes during the shifting from childhood to adolescence. The academic acquisition is a multifactorial process with devastating inputs. Academic achievement directly correlates with the behavioral attitudes of students. Shorter sleeping duration erodes the volume of brain gray matter in frontal and precuneus cortex regions. Moreover, the concomitant depletion of neurotransmitters is proportionally connected with inadequate sleeping.

Aims: To evaluate the associations between bedtime initiations, sleeping sufficiency and objective academic performance in a large sample of second secondary students.

Methods: The study sample consisted of 900 adolescents; 450boysand 450 girls in the second secondary class at Hail city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Participants filled a questioner about their socioeconomic factors as bedtime, sleeping duration, mental games practicing, and physical activity. Weight and height were measured to assess body mass index (kg/m2). Data extracted from the questioner used to study the contribution of the concomitant factors on academic achievement.

Results: The mean weight was 73.57±8.34 kg IQR (44-126) while the mean height was (170.38±6.45) cm IQR (141-192). The mean BMI was 33.57±14.79(IQR 21.0–38.8). The overall prevalence of childhood obesity was 460 (49.6%; 95% CI: 55.3–66.8%) while the prevalence of overweight was 85 (9.04%; 95% CI: 7.3 –11.4%). The mean ministry academic score for the second secondary class was 70±9.99 IQR (44- 99) while the school academic score was 88.07±7.44 IQR (60-99). 51.6% of the students went to bed between 10-12 pm and only 17.6% slept between 8 and 10 hours.

Conclusion: We can summarize, the independent variables as bedtime, sleeping duration, and obesity ameliorate academic achievement in a counteractive way; high BMI above 35 and prolonged sleeping duration more than 10 hours significantly curb the total academic score, whereas, healthy bedtime of 8-10 pm concomitantly augment the academic achievement.

Bedtime, sleeping duration, obesity, academic achievement, KSA

Article Details

How to Cite
Rayyan, W. A., Salem, S., Dayyih, W. A., Shawareb, A. A., Awad, R., Batarseh, Y. S., & Matubsi, H. Y. A. (2020). Sleeping Duration, Bedtime and BMI and Their Rapport on Academic Performance among Adolescents. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 32(9), 8-18.
Original Research Article


Holmes ME, Kvasnicka MA, Brocato DK, Webb HE. Metabolic health and academic achievement in youth at risk for high school dropout in rural Mississippi: The role of classroom management. Prev Med Rep. 2018;11:115-19.

Muntaner-Mas A, Palou P, Vidal-Conti J, Esteban-Cornejo I. A mediation analysis on the relationship of physical fitness components, obesity and academic performance in children. J Pediatr. 2018; 198:90-97 e4.

Toh ST, Phua CQ, Loh S. Holistic management of obstructive sleep apnea: Translating academic research to patient care. Sleep Med Clin. 2019;14:1-11.

Burns RD, Fu Y, Brusseau TA, Clements-Nolle K, Yang W. Relationships among physical activity, sleep duration, diet, and academic achievement in a sample of adolescents. Prev Med Rep. 2018;12:71-74.

Adelantado-Renau M, Beltran-Valls MR, Migueles JH, Artero EG, Legaz-Arrese A, Capdevila-Seder A, et al. Associations between objectively measured and self-reported sleep with academic and cognitive performance in adolescents: DADOS study. J Sleep Res. 2019;e12811.

Krueger JM, Frank MG, Wisor JP, Roy S. Sleep function: Toward elucidating an enigma. Sleep Medicine Reviews. 2016;28: 46-54.

Carskadon MA. Patterns of sleep and sleepiness in adolescents. Pediatrician. 1990;17:5-12.

Carskadon MA, Vieira C, Acebo C. Association between puberty and delayed phase preference. Sleep. 1993;16:258-62.

Mercer PW, Merritt SL, Cowell JM. Differences in reported sleep need among adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health. 1998;23:259-63.

Beebe D, Rose D, Amin R. Effect of chronic sleep restriction on adolescents' learning and brain activity in a simulated classroom: A pilot study. in Sleep; 2008. AMER ACAD SLEEP MEDICINE ONE WESTBROOK CORPORATE CTR, STE 920, WESTCHESTER ….

Link S, Ancoli-Israel S. Sleep and the teenager. Sleep Res. 1995;24:184.

Newman DL, Moffitt TE, Caspi A, Magdol L, Silva PA, Stanton WR. Psychiatric disorder in a birth cohort of young adults: prevalence, comorbidity, clinical significance, and new case incidence from ages 11 to 21. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 1996;64:552.

Zeek ML, Savoie MJ, Song M, Kennemur LM, Qian J, Jungnickel PW, et al. Sleep duration and academic performance among student pharmacists. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 2015;79.

Elagra MI, Rayyan MR, Alnemer OA, Alshehri MS, Alsaffar NS, Al-Habib RS, et al. Sleep quality among dental students and its association with academic performance. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2016;6: 296-301.

Roenneberg T, Kuehnle T, Pramstaller PP, Ricken J, Havel M, Guth A, et al. A marker for the end of adolescence. Current biology. 2004;14:R1038-R39.

Carskadon M, Mindell J, Drake C. Contemporary sleep patterns of adolescents in the USA: Results of the 2006 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America Poll. in Journal of Sleep Research. 2006. Blackwell Publishing 9600 Garsington RD, Oxford OX4 2DQ, Oxon, England.

Aphamis G, Ioannou Y, Giannaki CD. Physical fitness and obesity levels during an academic year followed by summer holidays: an issue of insufficient time for physical activity. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2017;31.

Siegel JM. The neurotransmitters of sleep. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65:4-7.

Sui Z, Raman J, Han B, Burchell T, Coogan SCP, Brennan B, et al. Recent trends in intensive treatments of obesity: Is academic research matching public interest? Surg Obes Relat Dis; 2019.

Washington R. Negative association between obesity and academic performance-Physical fitness may help mediate the effects. J Pediatr. 2018;198:2-3.

Organization WH. Body mass index - BMI. 2012;


Asarnow LD, McGlinchey E, Harvey AG. The effects of bedtime and sleep duration on academic and emotional outcomes in a nationally representative sample of adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2014;54: 350-6.

Alswat KA, Al-shehri AD, Aljuaid TA, Alzaidi BA, Alasmari HD. The association between body mass index and academic performance. Saudi Medical Journal. 2017; 38:186.

Almoajel A, Al-Zahrani AN, AL-Qtaibi MS. Health behaviours affecting academic performance among university students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: KSU female students as an example. Australasian Medical Journal (Online). 2017;10: 870-78.

Zeek ML, Savoie MJ, Song M, Kennemur LM, Qian J, Jungnickel PW, et al. Sleep Duration and Academic Performance Among Student Pharmacists. Am J Pharm Educ. 2015;79:63.

Guo L, Luo M, Wang W, Huang G, Zhang WH, Lu C. Association between weekday sleep duration and nonmedical use of prescription drug among adolescents: the role of academic performance. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry; 2019.

Rayyan wa, al-majali is, batarseh y, salem s, dayyih wa. The adversary effect of obesity on academic achievement among ADOLESCENTS. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2019;12:257-60.

Washington R. Negative association between obesity and academic performance — Physical fitness may help mediate the effects. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2018;198:2-3.

Judge S, Jahns L. Association of overweight with academic performance and social and behavioral problems: An update from the early childhood longitudinal study. Journal of School Health. 2007;77:672-78.

Santana CCA, Hill JO, Azevedo LB, Gunnarsdottir T, Prado WL. The association between obesity and academic performance in youth: A systematic review. Obes Rev. 2017;18:1191-99.

Rayyan WA. Obesity Influence on Lead levels in Blood and Scalp Hair among TeenageSmokers in Jordan. Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences. 2016; 4:244-50.

Bustami m, Abudayyih w, Batarseh ys, almajali is, tamimi ln, rahhal a, et al. Effect of smoking and obesity on the serum levels of vitamin d3 in the central region of jordan. International Journal of Biology, Pharmacy and Allied Sciences. 2019; 8:17.

Taras H, Potts‐Datema W. Obesity and student performance at school. Journal of School Health. 2005;75:291-95.

Taras H, Potts‐Datema W. Sleep and student performance at school. Journal of school health. 2005;75:248-54.

Suraya F, Meo SA, Almubarak Z, Alqaseem YA. Effect of obesity on academic grades among Saudi female medical students at College of Medicine, King Saud University: Pilot study. J Pak Med Assoc. 2017;67: 1266-69.

Baxter SD, Guinn CH, Tebbs JM, Royer JA. There is no relationship between academic achievement and body mass index among fourth-grade, predominantly African-American children. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013; 113:551-7.

Laura J. Burns RH, Steven J. Ingels, Judith Pollack, Daniel J. Pratt, Donald Rock, Jim Rogers, Leslie A. Scott, Peter Siegel and Ellen Stutts. Project officer: Jeffrey Owings. Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 Base Year Field Test Report; 2003.


Alsaggaf MA, Wali SO, Merdad RA, Merdad LA. Sleep quantity, quality and insomnia symptoms of medical students during clinical years. Relationship with stress and academic performance. Saudi Med J. 2016; 37:173-82.