The Adverse Effect Reporting for the Most Commonly Used Antibiotics

Main Article Content

Nehad J. Ahmed
Mohammed I. Fouda
Dina I. Fouda
Ahmed I. Foudah

Abstract

Aim: Antibiotics save lives, but the excess use of antibiotics leads to more side effects. Patients benefit from medications but also complain about their adverse effects. This study aims to explore the reports of the adverse effects for the most commonly used antibiotics in Saudi Arabia.

Methodology: The Data regarding the adverse events reports were collected from The National Pharmacovigilance Center in Saudi Arabia. The data include the major allergic reactions and gastrointestinal side effects for the most commonly used antibiotic classes.

Results: The total number of allergic and gastrointestinal adverse effects in 2017 and 2018 for the included antibiotic drugs is 583 reports. The majority of the reports were for penicillin antibiotics (39.96) particularly Amoxicillin/Clavunate.

Conclusion: The most common adverse effects of antibiotics are allergic and gastrointestinal effects. It is important to report any adverse drug reactions either by health care providers or patients to the Saudi Pharmacovigilance Center.

Keywords:
Adverse effect, side effects, reporting, antibiotics, antimicrobial

Article Details

How to Cite
Ahmed, N. J., Fouda, M. I., Fouda, D. I., & Foudah, A. I. (2020). The Adverse Effect Reporting for the Most Commonly Used Antibiotics. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 32(8), 22-28. https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i830467
Section
Original Research Article

References

Bian Z, Tian H, Gao L, Shang H, Wu T, Li Y, et al. Improving reporting of adverse events and adverse drug reactions following injections of Chinese material medica. J Evid Based Med. 2010;3(1):5-10.

Wu L, Ingle T, Liu Z, Zhao-Wong A, Harris S, Thakkar S, et al. Study of serious adverse drug reactions using FDA-approved drug labeling and MedDRA. BMC Bioinformatics. 2019;20(2):97.

CDC. Appropriate antibiotic use; 2020.
Available:https://www.cdc.gov/antibiotic-use/index.html
[Accessed January 21, 2020]

Gajdács M. The concept of an ideal antibiotic: Implications for drug design. Molecules. 2019;24:892.

Aslam A, Gajdács M, Zin CS, BintiAbd Rahman NS, Ahmed SI, Jamshed SQ. Public awareness and practices towards self-medication with antibiotics among the Malaysian population. A development of questionnaire and pilot-testing. Antibiotics. 2020;9:97.

Gajdács M, Paulik E, Szabó A. Knowledge, attitude and practice of community pharmacists regarding antibiotic use and infectious diseases: A cross-sectional survey in Hungary (KAPPhA-HU). Antibiotics. 2020;9:41.

Tamma PD, Avdic E, Li DX, Dzintars K, Cosgrove SE. Association of adverse events with antibiotic use in hospitalized patients. JAMA Intern Med. 2017;177(9): 1308-15.

Shehab N, Patel PR, Srinivasan A, Budnitz DS. Emergency department visits for antibiotic-associated adverse events. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47(6):735-43.

Dancer SJ. How antibiotics can make us sick: The less obvious adverse effects of antimicrobial chemotherapy. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004;4(10):611-9.

Gajdacs M, Szabo A. Physicians' opinions towards antibiotic use and resistance in the Southeastern Region of Hungary. Orvosihetilap. 2020;161(9):330.‏

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Postmarketing Surveillance Programs; 2020.
Available:https://www.fda.gov/drugs/surveillance/postmarketing-surveillance-programs
[Accessed January 21, 2020]

Gajdács M. The concept of an ideal antibiotic: Implications for drug design. Molecules. 2019;24(5):892.

Saudi Food & Drug Authority. Establishment of a General Authority for Food and Drug; 2013.
Available:http://www.sfda.gov.sa/ar/about/Pages/memo.aspx
[Accessed 2014 May 12]

Adel Alharf, Nasser Alqahtani, Ghazi Saeed, Ali Alshahrani, Mubarak Alshahrani, Nasser Aljasser, et al. Saudi Vigilance Program: Challenges and lessons learned. Saudi Pharm J. 2018;26(3):388-395.

Olsson S. Kick-off for pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia. UR45 UPPSALA Reports; 2009.

[Cited 2009 April; Accessed 2012 May 12]
Available:http://who-umc.org/graphics/24355.pdf

Saudi Food & Drug Authority. The National Pharmacovigilance and Drug Safety Center; 2012.
Available:http://www.sfda.gov.sa/
en/drug/about/sector_departments/national_
pharmacovigilance_center//pages/reporting_forms.aspx
[Accessed: 2012 May 12]

Van Grootheest K, de Jong-van den Berg L. Patients' role in reporting adverse drug reactions. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2004;3(4):363-8.

DRUGDEX® System. Intranet database, version 5.1. Thomson Micromedex; 2020.

Macy E, Ho NJ. Multiple drug intolerance syndrome: Prevalence, clinical charac-teristics and management. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2012;108(2):88-93.

Zhou L, Dhopeshwarkar N, Blumenthal KG, Goss F, Topaz M, Slight SP, et al. Drug allergies documented in electronic health records of a large healthcare system. Allergy. 2016;71(9):1305-13.

Rea MC, Dobson A, O'Sullivan O, Crispie F, Fouhy F, Cotter PD, et al. Effect of broad- and narrow-spectrum antimicrobials on Clostridium difficile and microbial diversity in a model of the distal colon. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2011;108(1): 4639-44.

CDC. Is it really a penicillin allergy? 2020.
Available:https://www.cdc.gov/antibiotic-use/community/pdfs/penicillin-factsheet.pdf
[Accessed January 22, 2020]

Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters representing the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology; American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology; Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Drug allergy: An updated practice parameter. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2010;105(4):259-273.

ACAAI Public Website. Drug allergies. Reactions, Symptoms & Treatment; 2018.
Available:https://acaai.org/allergies/types/drug-allergies
[Accessed 17 March 2020]