A Point Prevalence Survey of Antimicrobial Usage for Surgical Site Infections- A Pilot Perspective from Holy Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Main Article Content

Abdul Haseeb
Hani Saleh Faidah
Manal Al-Gethamy
Saad Alghamdi
Abrar Mohammed Barnawi
Afnan Abid Aljuhani
Haneen Smai Hareedi
Halimah Saeed Basndwah
Randa Talat Malayou
Reham Mohammed Almotairi
Shuruq Sami Elahe
Muhammad Shahid Iqbal

Abstract

Introduction: This study aimed to assess the incidence, microbiological features and management of surgical site infections (SSIs).

Methodology: All patients in the surgical ward were followed from admissions until discharge during the study period. Only hospitalized patients with certain SSIs within 30 days of surgeries were included in the study.

Results: A total of 457 patients were followed during the study period. Interestingly, only 9 (1.9 %) of the patients developed SSIs. Most of the patients were males 6 (66.7%) and Saudi nationals 7 (77.8 %). The most common surgical procedures were laparoscopic and orthopedic surgeries with a similar rate of 3 (3.3 %).

Conclusion: This study revealed that the incidence of SSIs was quite lower at the hospital where the study was conducted and different types of antibiotics were used and recommended for prophylaxis.

Keywords:
Surgical site infections, surgery, SSIs, antibiotics, Saudi Arabia.

Article Details

How to Cite
Haseeb, A., Faidah, H. S., Al-Gethamy, M., Alghamdi, S., Barnawi, A. M., Aljuhani, A. A., Hareedi, H. S., Basndwah, H. S., Malayou, R. T., Almotairi, R. M., Elahe, S. S., & Iqbal, M. S. (2020). A Point Prevalence Survey of Antimicrobial Usage for Surgical Site Infections- A Pilot Perspective from Holy Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 32(6), 39-44. https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i630443
Section
Original Research Article

References

Nichols RL. Postoperative infections in the age of drug-resistant gram-positive bacteria. The American Journal of Medicine. 1998;104(5):11S-16S.

Al-Mulhim FA, Baragbah MA, Sadat-Ali M, Alomran AS, Azam MQ. Prevalence of surgical site infection in orthopedic surgery: A 5-year analysis. International Surgery. 2014;99(3):264-268.

Castro Pde T, Carvalho AL, Peres SV, Foschini MM, Passos AD. Surgical-site infection risk in oncologic digestive surgery. Braz J Infect Dis. 2011;15(2).

Young B, Ng TM, Teng C, Ang B, Tai HY, Lye DC. Nonconcordance with surgical site infection prevention guidelines and rates of SSIs for general surgical, neurological, and orthopedic procedures. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55(10):4659-4663.
DOI: 10.1128/aac.00562-11

Horan TC, Gaynes RP, Martone WJ, Jarvis WR, Grace Emori T. CDC definitions of nosocomial SSIs, 1992: A modification of CDC definitions of surgical wound infections. American Journal of Infection Control. 1992;20(5):271-274.

Hughes AJ, Ariffin N, Huat TL, Abdul Molok H, Hashim S, Sarijo J, Kamarulzaman A. Prevalence of nosocomial infection and antibiotic use at a university medical center in Malaysia. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2005;26(1): 100-104.

DOI: 10.1086/502494

Timbiné L. Etude bactériologique des infections nosocomiales dans les services de chirurgie (Chirurgie générale, Gynécologie, Traumatologie, Urologie) et d’Urgences-Réanimation à l’hôpital Gabriel Touré. Thèse Pharm, Bamako; 1998.

Control CFD, Prevention. National nosocomial infections surveillance (NNIS) report, data summary from October 1986-April 1996, issued May 1996. A report from the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) system. Am J Infect Control. 1996;24:380-388.

Nooyen S, Overbeek B, De La Riviere AB, Storm A, Langemeyer J. Prospective randomised comparison of single-dose versus multiple-dose cefuroxime for prophylaxis in coronary artery bypass grafting. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. 1994;13(12):1033-1037.

Schaberg DR. Resistant gram-positive organisms. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 1994;24(3):462-464.

Schaberg DR, Culver DH, Gaynes RP. Major trends in the microbial etiology of nosocomial infection. The American Journal of Medicine. 1991;91(3):S72-S75.

Jarvis WR. Epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections, with emphasis on Candida species. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 1995;20(6):1526-1530.

Women's NCCF, Health CS. Surgical Site Infection; 2008.

Graves EJ, Gillum BS. Detailed diagnoses and procedures, National Hospital Discharge Survey, 1994. Vital Health Stat. 1997;13(127):1-145.

Emori TG, Gaynes RP. An overview of nosocomial infections, including the role of the microbiology laboratory. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1993;6(4):428-442.

Smyth E, McIlvenny G, Enstone J, Emmerson A, Humphreys H, Fitzpatrick F, Spencer R. Four country healthcare associated infection prevalence survey 2006: Overview of the results. Journal of Hospital Infection. 2008;69(3): 230-248.

Mangram AJ, Horan TC, Pearson ML, Silver LC, Jarvis WR. Guideline for prevention of surgical site infection, 1999. American Journal of Infection Control. 1999;27(2):97-134.
DOI: 10.1016/s0196-6553(99)70088-x

Mayon-White RT, Ducel G, Kereselidze T, Tikomirov E. An international survey of the prevalence of hospital-acquired infection. J Hosp Infect. 1988;11(Suppl A):43-48.

National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System Report, data summary from January 1992 to June 2002, issued August 2002. Am J Infect Control. 2002;30(8):458-475.

Ennigrou S, Mokhtar L, Ben Alaya N, Dziri C, Cherif A, Najah N, Zouari B. Study of the incidence and cost of nosocomial infections in general surgery. Tunis Med. 2000;78(11):628-633.

Bezzaoucha A, Makhlouf F, Dekkar N, Lamdjadani N. Prévalence des infections nosocomiales au centre hospitalo-universitaire de Bab El Oued-Alger. Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses. 1994; 24(2):96-101.
Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0399-077X(05)80917-5

Njimenten G. Place des bactéries anaérobies Gram négatif dans les infections nosocomiales à l’Hôpital Paul IGAMBA de Port-Gentil Gabon de 1990-2000. Thèse de Pharmacie-Bamako; 2003.

Timbiné L. Etude bactériologique des infections nosocomiales dans les services de chirurgie (Chirurgie générale, Gynécologie, Traumatologie, Urologie) et d’Urgences-Réanimation à l’hôpital Gabriel Touré. Thèse Pharm, Bamako; 1998.

Togo A, Traore A, Kante L. Fighting nosocomial infection rates in the general surgery department of the teaching hospital Gabriel Toure in Bamako, Mali. The Op Biol J. 2010;3:87-91.

Dembele MD. Antibioprophylaxie dans les services de chirurgie generale et pedia-trique de l’hopital gabriel toure.Faculté de Médecine de Pharmacie et d'Odonto-Stomatologie; 2005.

Nguyen DMD, MacLeod WBS, Phung DCMDP, Cong QTMDMS, Nguyen VHMD, Nguyen VHMD. Davidson Howes Hamer, M. D; 2001.

Lilani S, Jangale N, Chowdhary A, Daver G. Surgical site infection in clean and clean-contaminated cases. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2005;23(4):249.

Incidence and Predictors of Surgical‐Site Infections in Vietnam. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 2001;22(8): 485-492.
DOI: 10.1086/501938

Young B, Ng TM, Teng C, Ang B, Tai HY, Lye DC. Nonconcordance with surgical site infection prevention guidelines and rates of SSIs for general surgical, neurological, and orthopedic procedures. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55(10):4659-4663.
DOI: 10.1128/aac.00562-11

Organization WH. Report on the burden of endemic health care-associated infection worldwide; 2011.