Toxicity of the Hydroethanolic Leaves Extract of Duranta erecta L. in Rat Models

Main Article Content

Shadrack Donkor
Christopher Larbie
Gustav Komlaga
Benjamin Obukowho Emikpe

Abstract

Background and Objectives: Duranta erecta is used in folklore medicine for the treatment of myriad of diseases in Africa. The study was carried out to evaluate the safety of hydroethanolic leaves extract of D. erecta in experimental rats in order to ascertain its potential toxic effects. Materials and Methods: The acute toxicity study was performed by fixed dose method at 5000 mg/kg. In the subacute study performed on both male and female rats, group I (control) received 1 mL of freshly distilled water, groups II, III, IV were treated with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of freshly prepared extract respectively for 28 days. At the end of the study, haematological and biochemical parameters were determined. Internal organs (kidney, liver, lung, heart, spleen, stomach, testes and uterus) were weighed.

Results: 50% lethal dose (LD50) of the extract was determined to be > 5 g/kg body weight. The subacute toxicity assessment resulted in overall body weight increase, a change in relative organ weight of the liver, lung, stomach, and changes in the haematological indices such as HCT%, LYM%, RDW- SD/fL, MCHC, MCV/fL, P-LCR% and biochemical parameters namely ALT, AST, LDH and creatinine of the tested group relative to the normal. The positive activity of the extract on liver enzymes and LDH is an indication of its good hepatoprotective potential.

Conclusion: The results affirmed that the extract is safe but could cause kidney problems when used for a prolonged period.

Keywords:
Duranta erecta, acute toxicity, subacute toxicity, haematological indices, biochemical indicators.

Article Details

How to Cite
Donkor, S., Larbie, C., Komlaga, G., & Emikpe, B. O. (2020). Toxicity of the Hydroethanolic Leaves Extract of Duranta erecta L. in Rat Models. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 32(6), 9-18. https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i630441
Section
Original Research Article

References

Abere T, Okoto PE, Agoreyo FO. Antidiarrhoea and toxicological evaluation of the leaf extract of Dissotis rotundifolia Triana (Melastomataceae). BMC Complement Alternative Medicine. 2010;10:71.

Ezuruike UF, Prieto JM. The use of plants in the traditional management of diabetes in Nigeria: Pharmacological and toxicological considerations. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2014;155(2):857–924.

Mensah MLK, Komlaga G, Forkuo AD, Firempong C, Anning AK, Dickson RA. Toxicity and safety implications of herbal medicines used in Africa, Herbal Medicine, Philip F. Builders, IntechOpen; 2019.
Available:https://www.intechopen.com/books/herbal-medicine/toxicity-and-safety-: implications-of-herbal-medicines-used-in-africa

Abou-Setta LM, Nazif NM, Shahat AA. Phytochemical investigation and antiviral activity of Duranta repens. Journal of Applied Science Research. 2007;3:1426–33.

Donkor S, Larbie C, Komlaga G, Emikpe BO. Phytochemical, antimicrobial and antioxidant profiles of Duranta erecta L. parts. Biochemistry Research International; 2019.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/8731595

Bhar K, Kantha LK, Manna S, Nagalaxmi P, Eswar K, Satya C. In-vitro cytotoxic activity and anthelmintic activity of chloroform extract of D. erecta L. ripe fruits. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. 2016;7(6):860-5.

Thompson N. Poisonous plants in Australia: Enabling consumers to buy safe plants (PDF). WWF-Australia. 2008;10:11-12.

National Research Council. Guide for care and use of laboratory animal. National Academic Press Washington, Edition 8th. 2011;43-45.

OECD. Guideline on acute oral toxicity (AOT). Environmental and safety monograph series on testing and adjustment. 2001;425.

Arthur KN, Woode E, Terlabi EO, Larbie C. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity of Annona muricata (Linn.) aqueous extract in animals. European Journal of Experimental Biology. 2011;1(4):115-124.

Festing MF, Altman DG. Guidelines for the design and statistical analysis of experiments using laboratory animals. Institute of Laboratory Animal Research Journal. 2002;43(4):244-258.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1093/ilar.43.4.244

Charan J, Kantharia ND. How to calculate sample size in animal studies? Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics. 2013;4(4):303.
Available:https://doi.org/10.4103%2F0976-500X.119726

Festing MF. Design and statistical methods in studies using animal models of development. Institute of Laboratory Animal Research Journal. 2006;47(1):5-14.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1093/ilar.47.1.5

Crook M. Clinical chemistry & metabolic medicine (7th Ed.). Hodder Arnold, London; 2006.

Puri AV. Duranta repens Linn. (Verbenaceae): A comprehensive review of pharmacognostic, ethnomedicinal, pharmacological and phytochemical. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2018;11:91-96.

Chinedu E, Arome D, Ameh F. A new method for determining acute toxicity in animal models. Toxicology International. 2013;20(3):224–226.

Zolk O, Fromm MF. Transporter-mediated drug uptake and efflux: Important determinants of adverse drug reactions. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2011;89(6):798–805.

Piao Y, Liu Y, Xe X. Change trends of organ weight background data in sprague dawley rats at different ages. Journal of Toxicological Pathology. 2013;1:29–34.

Jiang WLH, Ablat N, et al. Evaluation of the acute and subacute oral toxicity of the herbal formula Xiaoer Chaigui Tuire oral liquid. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2016;189:290–299.

Raina P, Chandrasekaran CVM, Agarwa lA, Ruchika KG. Evaluation of subacute toxicity of methanolic/ aqueous preparation of aerial parts of O. sanctum in Wistar rats: Clinical, haematological, biochemical and histopathological studies. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2015;175:509–517.

Gawlita M, Wasilewski J, Osadnik T, Reguła R, Bujak K, Gonera M. Mean platelet volume and platelet-large cell ratio as prognostic factors for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. Folia Cardiologica. 2016;10(6):418–422.

Madingou NOK, Traore T, Souza A, Mounanga MMB, Samseny RRA, Ouedraogo S, Traore AS. Preliminary studies of acute and sub-chronic toxicity of the aqueous extract of Guibourtia tessmannii (Harms) J. Leonard stem barks (Caesalpiniaceae) in mice and rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2016;6(6):506-510.

Ududua OU, Michael O, Monanu OM, Chuku LC. Evaluation of acute toxicity of the ethanolic leaf extract of Brachystegia eurycoma in albino wistar rats. Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research. 2019;7(1):1-7.

Scanlan SNA, Eagles DA, Vacher NE, Irvine MA, Ryan CJ, Mckenzie RA. Duranta erecta poisoning in nine dogs and a cat. Australian Veterinary Journal. 2006;84(10):367-370.