In vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extract of Senna italica (Caesalpiniaceae) on Three-stages of Haemonchus contortus

Main Article Content

Gilbert Yongwa
Belga François Ngnodandi François Ngnoda
Dieudonné Ndjonka
Pierre Saotoing

Abstract

A phytochemical screening and in vitro anthelminthic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Senna italica on Haemonchus contortus were conducted. Polyphenol, tannin and flavonoid contents were determined by using gallic acid and rutin. egg hatching inhibition test was carried out on fresh eggs; larval mortality test was conducted on infective larvae (L3) and adult worm mortality test was conducted. Eggs, larvae and adults worms were incubated in aqueous and ethanolic extract of S. italica at different concentrations (0.1; 0.3; 0.5; 0.7 and 1 mg/mL). All extracts of plants showed an effect on all stages of H. contortus with high efficiency variations depending on the dose used. The inhibition of eggs hatching rate increased from 8.67±1.53% to 65.67±1.15% and from 24.67±1.53% to 80±1.73% respectively for aqueous and ethanolic extract of S. italic. The larval mortality rate increased from 12.22±2.34% to 56.67±4.9% after 24 h and from 45.28±4.11% to 91.25±3.73% after 48 h for aqueous extract and from 30.07±2.84% to 70.83±6.31% after 24 h and from 48.79±3.73% to 96.25±4.79% after 48 h for ethanolic extract. After 24 h of exposure to aqueous and ethanolic extract of S. italica, the adult mortality rate varies from 55.56±9.62% to 83.33±9.62% for aqueous extract and from 61.11±9.62% to 88.89±9.62%.These in vitro results confirm the use of S. italica in traditional medicine.

Keywords:
Extract, Senna italica, activity, Haemonchus contortus, Ngaoundere, Cameroon

Article Details

How to Cite
Yongwa, G., Ngnoda, B. F. N. F., Ndjonka, D., & Saotoing, P. (2020). In vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extract of Senna italica (Caesalpiniaceae) on Three-stages of Haemonchus contortus. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 32(3), 25-34. https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i330411
Section
Short Research Article

References

Mahieu M, Arquet R, Fleury J, Coppry O, Marie-Magdeleine C, Boval M, et al. Contrôle intégré du parasitisme gastro-intestinal des petits ruminants au pâturage en zone tropicale humide. Ruminants. 2009;16:265-268.

Perry BD, Randolph RF, McDermott JJ, Sones KR, Thornton PK. Investing in animal health research to alleviate poverty. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Nairobi, Kenya. 2002;148.

Allonby EW, Urquhart GM. The epidemiology and pathogenic significance of haemonchosis in a merino flock in East Africa. Vet. Parasitol. 1975;1:129-143.

Chiejina SN, Behnke JM, Musongong GA, Nnadi PA, Ngongeh LA. Resistance and resilience of West African Dwarf goats of the Nigerian savanna zone exposed to experimental escalating primary and challenge infections with Haemonchus contortus. Vet. Parasitol. 2010;171:81-90.

Qadir A. Investigation on the incidence of gastro-intestinal parasites of goats in the East Pakistan Agricultural University Campus. Ceylon Veterinary Journal. 1967;15:58-61.

Clark CH, Kiesel GK, Goby CH. Measurement of blood loss caused by the Haemonchus contortus in sheep. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 1962;23:977-980.

Jackson F, Coop RL. Development of anthelmintic resistance in sheep nematodes. Parasitol. 2000;20:95–107.

Kabore A. Activité anthelminthique de deux plantes tropicales testées in vitro et in vivo sur les Strongles gastro-intestinaux des Ovins de races Mossi du Burkina Faso. Thèse de Doctorat, Université Polytechnique de Bobo-Dioulasso. 2009;167.

Terrill TH, Dykes GS, Shaik SA, Miller JE, Kouakou B, Kannan G, et al. Efficacy of sericea lespedeza hay as a natural dewormer in goats: Dose titration study. Vet. Parasitol. 2009;163: 52-56.

Rajesh KV, Sumathi CS, Balasubramanian V, Ramesh N. Elementary chemical profiling and antifungal properties of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Nuts. Botan Res Internation. 2009;2:253-57.

Tshikalange TE, Meyer JJM, Husein AA. Antimicrobial activity, toxicity and the isolation of bioactive compounds from plants used to treat sexually transmitted diseases. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;96:515–519.

Ndjonka D, Ajonina-Ekoti I, Djafsia B, Luersen K, Abladam E, Liebau E. Anogeissus leiocarpus extract on the parasite nematode Onchocerca ochengi and on drug resistant mutant strains of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Vet Parasitol. 2012;190:136–42.

Awah FM, Uzoegwu PN, Ifeonu P, Oyugi JO, Rutherford J, Yao XJ, et al. Free radical scavenging activity, phenolic, contents and cytotoxicity of selected Nigerian medicinal plants, Food Chemistry. 2012;131:1279-1286.

Barros L, Cabrita L, Baos MV, Carvalho AM, Ferreira ICFR. Chemical, biochemical and electrochemical assays to evaluate phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of wild plants, Food Chemistry. 2011;127:1600-1608.

Ba K, Tine E, Destain J, Cisse N, Thonart P. Étude comparative des composés phénoliques, du pouvoir antioxydant de différentes variétés de sorgho sénégalais et des enzymes amylolytiques de leur malt, Biotechnol. Agro. Soc. Environ. 2010;14:131-139.

Jamuna S, Subramaniam P, Krishnamoorthy K. Phytochemical analysis and evaluation of leaf and root parts of the medicinal herb, Hypochaeris radicata L. for in vitro antioxidant activities, Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2014;359-367.

Ahmed IIB, Ahmed MA, Ahmed Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed F. Abou El-Nour, et al. Morphological and molecular characterization of Haemonchus contortus (Rudolphi, 1803) Cobb, 1898 (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) from sheep, Ovis aries in Egypt based on the second internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA, International Journal of Advanced Research. 2015;3(5): 1152-1161.

Soulsby EJL, Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals. 7th Edition Bailliere Tindall: London, Philadelphia and Toronto. 1982;809.

Eguale T, Tilahun G, Gidey M, Mekonnen Y. In vitro anthemintic activities of four ethiopian medicinal plants against Haemonchus contortus. Phamacology-online. 2006;3:153-165.

Wabo Poné J, Bilong Bilong CF, Mpoamé M, Fusi Ngwa C, Coles GC. In vitro activity of ethanol, cold water and hot water extracts of the bark of Canthium mannii (Rubiaceae) stem on Ancylostoma caninum Eggs. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2006;9:14-18.

Coles GC, Bauer C, Borgsteede FHM, Geerts S, Klei TR, Taylor MA, Waller PJ, et al. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.). Methods for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance. Veterinary Parasitology. 1992;44:35-44.

Barbosa FG, da Conceicao M, de Oliveira F, Braz-Filho R, Silveira ER. Anthraquinones and naphthopyrones from Senna rugosa. Biochem Sys Ecol. 2004;32:363–365.

Dabai YU, Kawo AH, Aliyu RM. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of the leaf and root extracts of Senna italic; African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2012;6(12): 914-918.

Adoum OA, Akinniyi JA, Omar T. The effect of geographical location on the antimicrobial activities and trace element concentrations in the root of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br, Annals of Borno. 1997;13(14):199-207.

Dedehou VFGN, Olounladé PA, Adenilé AD, Azando EVB, Alowanou GG, Daga FD, et al. Effets in vitro des feuilles de Pterocarpus erinaceus et des cosses de fruits de Parkia biglobosa sur deux stades du cycle de développement de Haemonchus contortus nématode parasite gastro-intestinal de petits ruminants. Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences. 2014;22(1): 3368-3378.

Hounzangbé-Adoté S, Fouraste I, Mountairou K, Hoste H. In vitro effects of four tropical plants on the activity and development of the parasitic nematode, Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Journal of Helminthology. 2005;79:29-33.

Fouche G, Sakong BM, Adenubi OT, Pauw E, Leboho T, Wellington KW, et al. Anthelmintic activity of acetone extracts from South African plants used on egg hatching of Haemonchus contortus Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. 2016;83(1):a1164.
Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v83i1.1164

Pessoa LM, Morais SM, Bevilaqua CM, Luciano JH. Anthelmintic activity of essential oil Ocinum gratissimum Linn. and eugenol against Haemonchus contortus. Vet. Parasitol. 2002;109:59-63.

Costa CTC, Morais SM, Bevilaqua CML, Souza MMC, Leite FKA. Efeito ovicida de extratos de sementes de Mangifera indica L. sobre Haemonchus contortus. Rev. Bras. Parasitol. 2002;11: 57-60.

Alawa CBI, Adamu AM, Gefu JO, Ajanusi OJ, Abdu PA, Chiezey NP, et al. In vitro screening of two Nigeria medicinal plants (Vernonia amygdalina and Annona senegalensis) for anthelmintic activity. Vet. Parasitol. 2003;113:73-81.

Maciel MV, Morais SM, Bevilaqua CML, Camurça-Vasconcelos ALF, Costa CTC, Castro CMS. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of Melia azedarach extracts on Haemonchus contortus. Vet. Parasitol. 2006;140:98-104.

Okombe EV. Activité antihelminthique de la poudre d'écorce de racine de Vitex thomasii De Wild (Verbenaceae) sur Haemonchus contortus chez la chèvre. Veterinary medicine and animal Health. Université de Lubumbashi. 2011;258.

Alvarez L, Marquina S, Villarreal ML, Alonso D, Aranda D. Bioactive polyacetylenes from Bidens pilosa. Planta Med. 1996;62:355-357.

Magaji RA, Yaro AH. Acute toxicity evaluation of the aqueous extract of Syzgium aromticum in mice. Biol. Environ. Sci. J. Trop. 2006;3(1):1-3.

Kawo AH, Suleiman ZA, Yusha’u M. Studies on the antibacterial activity and chemical constituents of Khaya senegalensis and Ximenia americana leaf extracts. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. 2011;5 (26):4562-4568.

Athanasiadou S, Kyriazakis I, Jackson F, Coop RL. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins towards different gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep: In vitro and in vivo studies. Vet. Parasitol. 2001;99(3):205-219.