Nutritional Viscosity Management for Renal Stones (Nephrolithiasis) Prevention According to Avicenna’s Canon of Medicine

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Sayed Mohammad Ali Soroushzadeh
Armin Zareiyan
Hossein Rezaeizadeh
Mehrdad Karimi
Hamed Arezaei
Mahdi Alizadeh Vaghasloo


The prevalence of renal stones in industrialized countries is about 10 to 12%, and its incidence has increased in recent years. Renal stone is strongly dependent on dietary habits, so dietary changes are the most promising intervention to reduce renal stone production. Nutrition from the perspective of traditional Persian medicine is one of the important pillars of prevention and treatment of diseases such as renal stones. In this article, we intend to outline the nutritional managements indicated in Avicenna’s book of canon of medicine on renal stones. According to Avicenna, renal stone producing foods are concentrated and viscous foods, including some dairy products, meats, cereals, fruits, pastries, breads and some foods. Many such foods discriminated by Avicenna to be viscous and thus stone forming are also shown by modern science to increase the risk of renal stone production although based on diverse mechanisms. This issue may be an example that traditional medicine may suggest experienced-founded phenotype-based shortcuts for better research hypothesis designs. 

Renal stones, nephrolithiasis, avicenna, canon of medicine, persian medicine, viscosity.

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Ali Soroushzadeh, S. M., Zareiyan, A., Rezaeizadeh, H., Karimi, M., Arezaei, H., & Alizadeh Vaghasloo, M. (2020). Nutritional Viscosity Management for Renal Stones (Nephrolithiasis) Prevention According to Avicenna’s Canon of Medicine. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 31(6), 1-6.
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