Elaborating Factors Affecting Maternal Nutritional Behavior; A Qualitative Approach

Main Article Content

Seyed Saeed Mazloomy Mahmoodabad
Fatemeh Jowzi
Hassan Mozaffari-Khosravi
Aliakbar Vaezi
Hosein Fallahzade


Introduction: Excessive consumption of confectionary can contribute to a high intake of sugar, fat and energy which lead to tooth decay, weight gain or obesity and related metabolic diseases. This study conducted to identify the effective factors on mothers’ nutrition behavior (reduction of confectionary consumption) on the basis of health action process approach.

Methods: This qualitative research has been conducted through Directed Content Analysis. Data were collected through semi structured interviews. Participants were mothers who had at least one child over 6 months and consumed all sorts of confectionary. The collected data were analyzed according to Granheim and Landman's method.

Results: The analysis of the interviews data resulted in 87 codes. The codes were organized into 6 categories and 26 subcategories and the 5 main themes are as follows: action planning, coping planning, action control, maintenance self-efficacy and social support

Conclusion: Our study suggested that one of the community supports is media education and it should be considered in implementing community-based educational programs

Confectionary consumption, mother, health action process approach, qualitative study.

Article Details

How to Cite
Mazloomy Mahmoodabad, S. S., Jowzi, F., Mozaffari-Khosravi, H., Vaezi, A., & Fallahzade, H. (2020). Elaborating Factors Affecting Maternal Nutritional Behavior; A Qualitative Approach. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 31(6), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.9734/jpri/2019/v31i630373
Original Research Article


Rodríguez LA, Madsen KA, Cotterman C, Lustig RH. Added sugar intake and metabolic syndrome in US adolescents: Cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2012. Public Health Nutr. 2016; 19(13):2424–2434.

United Nations General Assembly. Political declaration of the high-level meeting of the general assembly on the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases; 2011.
(Accessed January 2015)

Mwenda V, Mwangi M, Nyanjau L, Gichu M, Kyobutungi C, Kibachio J. Dietary risk factors for non-communicable diseases in Kenya: Findings of the STEPS survey, 2015; BMC Public Health. 2018;18(Suppl 3):1218.

Wagner KH, Brath H. A global view on the development of non communicable diseases. Prev Med. 2012;54:38–41.

World Health Organization. Islamic Republic of Iran. Health Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean Islamic Republic of Iran Health Profile 2015. Geneva; 2016.

Welsh JA, Sharma A, Cunningham SA, Vos MB. Consumption of added sugars and indicators of cardiovascular disease risk among US adolescents. Circulation. 2011;123:249-257.

Zumbe A, Lee A, Storey D. Polyols in confectionery: The route to sugar-free, reduced sugar and reduced calorie confectionery. British J Nutr. 2001; 85(Suppl 1):31-45.

Cantley LC. Cancer, metabolism, fructose, artificial sweeteners and going cold turkey on sugar. BMC Biol. 2014;12: 8.

Bray GA. Fructose and risk of cardio metabolic disease. Curr. Atheroscler. Rep. 2012;14:570–578.

O’Donnell M, Mente A, Rangarajan S, McQueen MJ, Wang X, Liu L, et al. Urinary sodium and potassium excretion, mortality and cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:612–623.
IDF MENA Members; 2019.
(Accessed Nov 17, 2019)

Rippe JM, Angelopoulos TJ. Sugars, obesity and cardiovascular disease: Results from recent randomized control trials. Eur J Nutr. 2016;55(Suppl 2):45-53.

Saadatnia M, Shakeri F, Hassanzadeh Keshteli A, Saneei P, Esmaillzadeh A. Dietary patterns in relation to stroke among Iranians: A Case-Control Study. J Am College Nutr. 2015;34(1):32-41.

Scaglioni S, Salvioni M, Galimberti C. Influence of parental attitudes in the development of children eating behaviour. British J Nutr. 2008;99(Suppl 1):22-25.

Noar SM. A health educator’s guide to theories of health behavior. Int Q Community Health Educ. 2005;24(1):75-92.

Schwarzer R, Luszczynska A. How to overcome health-compromising behaviors: The health action process approach. European Psychologist. 2008;13:141–151.

Schwarzer R. Modeling health behavior change: How to predict and modify the adoption and maintenance of health behaviors. Appl Psychol – Int Rev. 2008; 57:1–29.

Godinho CA, Alvarez MJ, Lima ML. Formative research on HAPA model determinants for fruit and vegetable intake: Target beliefs for audiences at different stages of change. Health Educ Res. 2013; 28(6):1014-1028.

Keshavarz Z, Simbar M, Ramezankhani A. Effective factors on nutritional behavior of female workers based on integrated model of planned behavior and self-efficacy: A Qualitative Approach. Hakim Res J. 2010;13(3):199-209.

Parvizi S, Ahmadi F, pourasadi H. A qualitative study on social predisposing factors of adolescents’ health. Iran J Nursing. 2011;24(69):8-17.

Hashemnezhad H. Qualitative content analysis research: A review aricle. J ELT Applied Linguistics (JELTAL). 2015;3(1): 54-62.

Graneheim UH, Lundman B. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: Concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Educ Today. 2004;24(2):105-12.

Speziale HJS, Streubert HJ, Carpenter DR. Qualitative research in nursing: Advancing the humanistic imperative. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010.

Inauen J, Tobias R, Mosler H J. Predicting water consumption habits for seven arsenic-safe water options in Bangladesh. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:1-10.

Arbour-Nicitopoulos KP, Duncan M, Remington G, Cairney J, Faulkner GE. Development and reliability testing of a health action process approach inventory for physical activity participation among individuals with schizophrenia. Front Psychiatry. 2014;5:1-9.

Sheeran P. Intention-behavior relations: A conceptual and empirical review. In W. Eur Rev Soc Psychol. 2002;12:1-36.

McDaniel AH. The human sweet tooth. BMC Oral Health. 2006;6(10):1-13.

Jalilian M, Darabi M, Sharifirad G, Kakaei H. Effectiveness of interventional program based on trans-theoretical model to promote regular physical activity in office workers. J Health Syst Res. 2013;9(2): 188-195.

Dauchet L, Amouyel P, Herceberg S, et al. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: A meta-analysis of cohort studies. J Nutr. 2006;136:2588–93.

Golan M, Crow S. Parents are key players in the prevention and treatment of weight-related problems. Nutr Rev. 2004;62:39–50.

Baliga MS, Baliga BRV, Kandathil SM, Bhat HP, Vayalil PK. A review of the chemistry and pharmacology of the date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Food Res Int. 2011;44:1812–1822.

Chiu C, Lynch RT, Chan F, Berven NL. The health action process approach as a motivational model for physical activity self-management for people with multiple sclerosis. Rehabil Psychol. 2011;56(3): 171-181.

Parschau L, Richert J, Koring M, Ernsting A Lippke S, Schwarzer R. Changes in social-cognitive variables are associated with stage transitions in physical activity. Health Educ Res. 2012;27(1):129-140.

Guillaumie L, Godin G, Manderscheid JC, Spitz E, Muller L. The impact of self-efficacy and implementation intentions-based interventions on fruit and vegetable intake among adults. Psychol Health. 2012;27:30-50.

Kreausukon P, Gellert P, Lippke S, Schwarzer R. Planning and self-efficacy can increase fruit and vegetable consump-tion: A randomized controlled trial. J Behav Med. 2012;35:443-451.

Hadi N, Hadi N. Does Yoga Affect Health? Hormozgan Med J. 2006;10(3): 243-250.

Najafi doulatabad SH, Nouryan KH, Malekzadeh GM, Ghaem H, Roozitalab M, Afraseyabifar A, et al. Effect of yoga exercise on General Health Status (GHS) and sense of life in patients with multiple sclerosis. Armaghane Danesh J. 2011; 16(30):245-253.

Sniehotta F, Scholz U, Schwarzer, R. Bridging the intention-behaviour gap: Planning, self-efficacy and action control in the adoption and maintenance of physical exercise. Psychol Health. 2005;20(2):143–150.

Robinson T. Applying the socio-ecological model to improving fruit and vegetable intake among low-income African Americans. J Community Health. 2008;33: 395-406.

Story M, Kaphingst KM, Robinson-O'Brien R, Glanz K. Creating healthy food and eating environments: Policy and environmental approaches. Annu Rev Public Health. 2008;29:253-72.

Reyahi MA, Verdinea AA, Porhosein Z. Study of the relationship between social support and mental health. Social Welfare Quarterly. 2010;10(39):84-121.