Main Article Content
Introduction: A Backpack is an essential tool for anyone, such as students who have to carry their daily necessities and supplies for long hours.
Aims: Studies have shown that inappropriate backpack types not only cause injuries to the musculoskeletal system but also cause the poor distribution of force and excessive pressure on the feet and thus discomfort for people.
Methods: In order to improve the comfort of backpack users and reduce the pressure on the foot, 18- to 25-year-old female students with normal body mass were selected for the study. The backpack was designed and made according to the Schoone-Harmsen method and ergonomic criteria. The sample was compared with current and existing backpacks in the market in terms of design and ergonomic features.
Results: The results showed that the new backpack using a medical belt based on ergonomic features with appropriate features provides a greater sense of comfort for users and it is improved compared to existing backpacks which are available in the Iranian market and designs based on previous studies.
Conclusion: For designing a backpack for people with different anthropometric sizes, a more accurate assessment of the larger sample, particularly measurements on the lumbar region and back, is required. It is recommended to evaluate the results in a larger sample and its effect on the dimples of Venus. However, the results had a positive evaluation at this stage.
Gong W, Lee S, Kim B. The comparison of pressure of the feet in stance and gait by the types of bags. Journal of Physical Therapy Science. 2010;22(3):255-8.
Pascoe DD, Pascoe DE, Wang YT, Shim D-M, Kim CK. Influence of carrying book bags on gait cycle and posture of youths. Ergonomics. 1997;40(6):631-40.
Kim S. Ergonomic analysis of army backpack designs: Back and shoulder stresses and their implications (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Utah).
Zakeri Y, Baraz S, Gheibizadeh M, Saidkhani V. Relationship between backpack weight and prevalence of lordosis, kyphosis, scoliosis and dropped shoulders in elementary students. International Journal of Pediatrics. 2016; 4(6):1859-66.
Castro M, Abreu S, Sousa H, Machado L, Santos R, Vilas-Boas JP. Ground reaction forces and plantar pressure distribution during occasional loaded gait. Applied Ergonomics. 2013;44(3):503-9.
Panicker RK, Sandesh TS. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in school going adolescents using school bags: A co-relational research. International Journal of Therapies and Rehabilitation Research. 2014;3(4):1.
Pau M, Mandaresu S, Leban B, Nussbaum MA. Short-term effects of backpack carriage on plantar pressure and gait in schoolchildren. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2015; 25(2):406-12.
Castro MP, Figueiredo MC, Abreu S, Sousa H, Machado L, Santos R, Vilas-Boas JP. The influence of gait cadence on the ground reaction forces and plantar pressures during load carriage of young adults. Applied Ergonomics. 2015;49:41-6.
Skaggs DL, Early SD, D'Ambra P, Tolo VT, Kay RM. Back pain and backpacks in school children. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. 2006;26(3):358-63.
Jensen DB, Denney P, Slack JV, Bohne M. Effects of different backpacks on selected gait parameters in college students. J Undergrad Kinesiol Res. 2014;9(2):41-6.
Devroey C, Jonkers I, De Becker A, Lenaerts G, Spaepen A. Evaluation of the effect of backpack load and position during standing and walking using biomechanical, physiological and subjective measures. Ergonomics. 2007;50(5):728-42.
Daneshmandi H, Rahmani-Nia F, Hosseini SH. Effect of carrying school backpacks on cardio-respiratory changes in adolescent students. Sport Sciences for Health. 2008; 4(1-2):7-14.
Brackley HM, Stevenson JM. Are children’s backpack weight limits enough? A critical review of the relevant literature. Spine. 2004;29(19):2184-90.
Macias BR, Murthy G, Chambers H, Hargens AR. Asymmetric loads and pain associated with backpack carrying by children. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. 2008;28(5):512-7.
Sheir-Neiss GI, Kruse RW, Rahman T, Jacobson LP, Pelli JA. The association of backpack use and back pain in adolescents. Spine. 2003;28(9):922-30.
Sharp O, Wong KY, Stephens P. Backpack palsy with Horner’s syndrome. BMJ Case Reports; 2017.
Knapik J, Harman E, Reynolds K. Load carriage using packs: A review of physiological, biomechanical and medical aspects. Applied Ergonomics. 1996;27(3): 207-16.
Amiri M, Dezfooli MS, Mortezaei SR. Designing an ergonomics backpack for student aged 7-9 with user centred design approach. Work. 2012;41(Supplement 1): 1193-201.
Kim J-H, Coca A, Williams WJ, Roberge RJ. Subjective perceptions and ergonomics evaluation of a liquid cooled garment worn under protective ensemble during an intermittent treadmill exercise. Ergonomics. 2011;54(7):626-35.
Shahidi F 1, Ramezani AR 2, Heydari F. Validity assessment of Borg's Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale in order to assessing fatigue of female students. 2013;1(1)33-40.
Smith DR, Leggat PA. Back pain in the young: A review of studies conducted among school children and university students. Current Pediatric Reviews. 2007; 3(1):69-77.
Trevelyan FC, Legg SJ. Back pain in school children—where to from here? Applied Ergonomics. 2006;37(1):45-54.
Schoone-Harmsen M. A design method for product safety. Ergonomics. 1990;33(4): 431-7.
Bellamy J. Is your child’s backpack making the Grade?
Mackie H, Legg S, Beadle J, Hedderley D. Comparison of four different backpacks intended for school use. Applied Ergonomics. 2003;34(3):257-64.