Antimicrobial Potential of Ethanol Extract and Fractions of Caesalpinia benthamiana (Caesalpinaceae) Root on Some Organisms Implicated in Oral Infections
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International,
This study investigated the activities of ethanol root extract of Caesalpinia benthamiana (Baill) Herend. and Zarucchi. (Caesalpiniaceae) against some microbial isolates implicated in oral infections and determined the killing rate of the most active fraction. It also investigated the phytochemical properties of the root extract. This was with a view to providing scientific basis for the use of the root in the treatment of oral infections.
The plant root was collected from the wild, washed, air-dried, ground to powder and macerated using ethanol and water at ratio 7:3 (v/v) with constant shaking for 72 hours in a mechanical shaker. The filtrate was concentrated in-vacuo at 50°C using a rotary evaporator and freeze dried. The crude extract was screened for phytochemical and antimicrobial properties. The extract was further partitioned into fractions using different organic solvents in order of their polarity. The antimicrobial potential of the different fractions was determined using agar-well diffusion and agar dilution method respectively. Time-kill-assay of the most active fraction was carried out on each of the organisms namely, Staphylococcus aureus (NCIB 8588) clinical isolates of Streptococcus mutans, S. pyogenes, S. salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The values obtained were subjected to inferential statistical analysis.
Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, saponins, phenolics and phenolic glycosides and anthraquinones. The root extract showed appreciable activity against all the test organisms, with the ethyl acetate fraction demonstrating highest activity and lowest MIC (0.16 mg/mL) compared with the crude extract and the other fractions. The activity was also time and concentration dependent. At triple the MIC all cells of respective organisms were killed at 5 minutes as was the case with all the standard antibiotics and anti-fungi used as positive control.
It was concluded that C. benthamiana ethanol root extract was highly active against oral isolates with its ethyl acetate fraction being the most effective.
- C. benthamiana
- rate of kill.
How to Cite
Nishimura J, Sait T, Yoneyama H, Sai L, Okimura K, Isogai E. Biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans and related bacteria. Advances in Microbiology. 2012; 2:208-215
Carroll KC. Bacteriology. In Jawetz, Melnick and Adelberg’s Medical Microbiology, 26th ed. USA: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.; 2013
Zadik Y, Burnstein S, Derazne E, Sandler V, Ianculovici C, Halperin T. Colonization of Candida: Prevalence among tongue-pierced and non-pierced immuno-competent adults. Oral Dis. 2010;16(2): 172–5.
Cannon RD, Chaffin WL. Oral colonization by Candida albicans. Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. 1999;10:359–383.
Badria FA, Zidan OA. Natural products for dental caries prevention. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2004;7(3):381–384.
Prabu GR, Gnanamani A, Sadulla S. Guaijaverin-a plant flavonoid as potential antiplaque agent against Streptococcus mutans. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2006;101(2):487–495.
Cox PA. The ethno-botanical approach to drug discovery: Strength and limitation. 1994; ed. Prance GT. 1994;25-40.
African Flowering Plants Database (AFPD)-Base de Donnees des Plantes a Fleurs D'Afrique; 2008.
Verger P. Awon ewe Osanyin (Yoruba Medicinal Leaves). University of Ife. 1997; 1-55.
Mbagwu HOC, Anene RA, Adeyemi OO. The analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties of Mezoneuron benthamianum. Nigerian Ot J. Hosp. Med. 2007;17(1):35-41.
Dickson RA, Houghton PJ, Hylands PJ, Gibbons S. Antimicrobial, resistance-modifying effects, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of Mezoneuron benthamianum Baill., Securinega virosa Roxb. & Wlld. and Microglossa pyrifolia Lam. Phytotherapy Research. 2006;20(1):41-5.
Fayemi SO, Osho A. Comparison of antimicrobial effects of Mezoneuron benthamianum, Heliotropium indicum and Flabellaria paniculata on Candida species. Journal of Microbiology Research. 2012; 2(1):18-23.
Binutu OA, Cordell GA. Gallic acid derivatives from Mezoneuron benthamianum leaves Pharmaceutical Biology. 2000;38(4):284–286.
Trease GE, Evans WC. Test book of pharmacognosy. 15th ed. London; Saunders Publishers; Saunders, London. 2002;2(4):214-393.
Harbone JB. Phytochemical methods: A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. 3rd ed. Chapman and Hall London. 1998;60-6.
Russell AD, Furr JR. Microbial susceptibility and resistance to biocides. ASM News. 1997;63:481–487.
Irobi ON, Moo-Young M, Anderson WA. Antimicrobial activity of Annatto (Bixa orellana) extract. International Journal of Pharmacy. 1996;34:87–90.
Balows A, Hausler WJ, Hermann KL, Isenberg HD, Shadamytt J. Manual of clinical microbiology. 5th ed. Washington (DC): American Society for Microbiology; 1991.
Rogers AH, editor. Molecular Oral Microbiology. Caister Academic Press; 2008.
Sufferedini IB, Paciencia MLB, Varella AD, Younes RN. Antibacterial activity of Brazilian Amazon plant extracts. Braz J Inf Dis. 2006;10(6):400-2.
Pankey GA, Sabath LD. Clinical relevance of bactericidal mechanisms of action in the treatment of Gram-positive bacterial infections. Clin Infect. Dis. 2004;38:864-870.
Hodek P, Trefil P, Stiborova M, Flavonoids- potent and versatile biologically active compounds interacting with cytochrome P450. Chemico- Bio-logical Inter. 2002;139(1):1-21.
Sevindik M. Investigation of antioxidant/ oxidant status and antimicrobial activities of Lentinus tigrinus. Adv Pharmacol Sci; 2018.
Sevindik M. The novel biological tests on various extracts of Cerioporus varius. Fresen Environ Bull. 2019;28(5):3713-3717.
Ferguson LR. Role of plant polyphenols in genomic stability. Mutat. Res. 2001;475: 89–111.
Sevindik M. Investigation of oxidant and antioxidant status of edible mushroom Clavariadelphus truncatus. The Journal of Fungus. 2018;9(2):165-168.
Mohammed FS, Akgul H, Sevindik M, Khaled BMT. Phenolic content and biological activities of Rhus coriaria var. zebaria. Fresen Environ Bull. 2018;27(8): 5694-5702.
Scalbert A. Antimicrobial properties of Tannins. Phytochem. 1991;30:3895-3883.
Motal MLR, Thomas G, Barbosa-Fillo GM. Effects of Anacadium occidentale stem back extract on in vivo inflammatory models. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1985;95(2-3): 139-142.
Liu J, Henkel T. Traditional chinese medicine (TCM). are polyphenols and saponins the key ingredients triggering biological activities? Curr. Med. Chem. 2002;9:1483-1485.
Just MJ, Recio MC, Giner RM, Cueller MJ, Manez S, Bilia AR, Rios JL. Anti-inflamatory activity of unusual lupine saponins from Bupleurium fruitcescens. Planta Medica. 1998;64:404-407.
Ikeda Y, Fujii Y, Nakaya I, Yamazak M. Quantitative HPLC analysis of cardiac glycosides in Digitalis purpurea leaves. J. Nat. Prod. 1995;58(60):897–901.
Abstract View: 1519 times
PDF Download: 588 times