Modulation of Hormonal, Oxidative Stress and Fatty Acids Profiling in Response to Glutamine and Chromium in Diabetic Rats

Main Article Content

Jehan A. Khan


Background: Fatty acids profiling of diabetes may be helpful in early diagnosis and management of diabetic. Chromium is a trace element and important cofactor for many anti-oxidant enzymes as superoxide dismutase. Glutamine is semi essential amino acid and reported to improve endothelial function, decrease   blood pressure, and vasodilator. This study investigated fatty acids profiling in diabetic rats and their response to administration of glutamine and chromium.

Methods: Fifty male albino rats were divided into 2 groups as following: GPI (10 rats); Control group. GP II (40 rats) were injected alloxan (75 mg /kg) i.p. for six consecutive days for induction of diabetes. Diabetic rats were divided into four groups: GP II: (Untreated diabetic): GP III: Rats were given orally with L-glutamine (100 mg/kg).GP IV: Rats were given with Chromium chloride (30 µg/ kg) ip. GP IV: Rats were given Glutamine and Chromium. After 6 weeks. Sera were used for the determination of Nitric oxide (NO), malondialdhyde (MDA), total antioxidants, insulin, glucagon, HA1C and fatty acids profile.

Results: Data obtained showed that, diabetic rats treated with glutamine and chromium restore the levels of hormones, HA1C, NO and MDA better than individual treatment (p<0.01) compared with untreated diabetic (p<0.001). A significant elevation of saturated fatty acids in diabetic and reduced unsaturated FA compared with control. Combination treatment reversed this ratio. This may explain increased insulin sensitivity in treated rats compared with untreated.

Conclusion: It was concluded that, Glutamine combined with chromium increased insulin sensitivity and recovery pancreatic efficacy in insulin production. Administration of glutamine or chromium reduced HA1c, the mechanisms involved explored the potential of these compounds in control fatty acids contents and management of diabetic.

Fatty acids, glutamine, chromium, diabetic, rats

Article Details

How to Cite
Khan, J. (2019). Modulation of Hormonal, Oxidative Stress and Fatty Acids Profiling in Response to Glutamine and Chromium in Diabetic Rats. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 27(1), 1-8.
Original Research Article


Cefalu WT, Hu FB. Role of chromium in human health and in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:2741–2751.

Jain SK, Lim G. Chromium chloride inhibits TNFalpha and IL-6 secretion in isolated human blood mononuclear cells exposed to high glucose. Horm Metab Res. 2006; 38:60–62.

Jain SK, Patel P, Rogier K, Jain SK. Trivalent chromium inhibits protein glycosylation and lipid peroxidation in high glucose-treated erythrocytes. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2006;8:238 –241.

Schwarz K, Mertz W. Chromium(III) and the glucose tolerance factor. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1959;85:292–295.

Evans GW, Pouchnik DJ. Composition and biological activity of chromium-pyridine carboxylate complexes. J Inorg Biochem. 1993;49:177–187.

Jeejeebhoy KN, Chu RC, Marliss EB, Greenberg GR, Bruce-Robertson A. Chromium deficiency, glucose intolerance, and neuropathy reversed by chromium supplementation, in a patient receiving long-term total parenteral nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. 1977;30:531–538.

Fauci Braunwald, Kasper Hauser, Longo Jameson, Loscalzo. Harrison’s principles of internal medicine: Diabetes Mellitus. 2016;17:228-46.

Déchelotte P, Darmaun D, Rongier M, Hecketsweiler B, Rigal O, Desjeux JF. Absorption and metabolic effects of enterally administered glutamine in humans. Am J Physiol. 1991;260:G677–82.

Greenfield JR, Farooqi IS, Keogh JM, Henning E, Habib AM, Blackwood A, et al. Oral glutamine increases circulating glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon, and insulin concentrations in lean, obese, and type 2 diabetic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:106–13.

Samocha-Bonet D, Wong O, Synnott EL, Piyaratna N, Douglas A, Gribble FM, et al. Glutamine reduces postprandial glycemia and augments the glucagon-like peptide-1 response in type 2 diabetes patients. J Nutr. 2011;141:1233–8.

Déchelotte P, Hasselmann M, Cynober L, Allaouchiche B, Coeffier M, Hecketsweiler B, et al. L-alanyl-L-glutamine dipeptide-supplemented total parenteral nutrition reduces infectious complications and glucose intolerance in critically ill patients: The French controlled, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study. Crit Care Med. 2006;34:598–604.

Bakalar B, Duska F, Pachl J, Fric M, Otahal M, Pazout J, et al. Parenterally administered dipeptide alanyl-glutamine prevents worsening of insulin sensitivity in multiple-trauma patients. Crit Care Med. 2006;34:381–6.

Darmaun D, Hayes V, Schaeffer D, Welch S, Mauras N. Effects of glutamine and recombinant human growth hormone on protein metabolism in pre-pubertal children with cystic fibrosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:1146–52.

Prada PO, Hirabara SM, de Souza CT, Schenka AA, Zecchin HG, Vassallo J, et al. L-glutamine supplementation induces insulin resistance in adipose tissue and improves insulin signalling in liver and muscle of rats with diet-induced obesity. Diabetologia. 2007;50:1949–59.

Prigeon RL, Quddusi S, Paty B, D’Alessio DA. Suppression of glucose production by GLP-1 independent of islet hormones: a novel extrapancreatic effect. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003;285: E701–7.

Parlevliet ET, de Leeuw van Weenen JE, Romijn JA, Pijl H. GLP-1 treatment reduces endogenous insulin resistance via activation of central GLP-1 receptors in mice fed a high-fat diet. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;299:E318–24.

Ghani, et al Contributions of β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance to the pathogenesis of impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:1130- 39.

Lau FC, Bagchi M, Sen CK, Bagchi D. Nutrigenomic basis of beneficial effects of chromium(III) on obesity and diabetes. Mol Cell Biochem. 2008;317(1-2).

Sawyer HJ. Chromium and its compounds. In: Zenz C, Dickerson OB, Horvath EP (eds). Occupational medicine. Mosby- Year Book Inc. St Louis. 1994;487–95.

Stohs SJ, Bagchi D. Oxidative mechanisms in the toxicity of metal ions. Free Radic Biol Med. 1995;18:321-36.

Porter DJ, Raymond LW, Anastasio GD. Chromium: Friend or foe? Arch Fam Med. 1999;8:386–90.

Zafra-Stone S, Yasmin T, Bagchi M, Chatterjee A, Vinson JA, Bagchi D. Berry anthocyanins as novel antioxidants in human health and disease prevention. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007;51:675–83.

Costa M. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of Cr (VI) in animal models and humans. Crit Rev Toxicol. 1997;27:431–42.

Tolhurst G, Zheng Y, Parker HE, Habib AM, Reimann F, et al. Glutamine triggers and potentiates glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion by raising cytosolic Ca2+ and cAMP. Endocrinology. 2011;152:405–413.

Greenfield JR, Farooqi IS, Keogh JM, Henning E, Habib AM, et al. Oral glutamine increases circulating glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon, and insulin concentrations in lean, obese, and type 2 diabetic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 89:106–113.