Monitoring of Pesticide Poisoning in Different Occupational Groups by the Estimation of Serum Cholinesterase (PChE), ALT, AST & Bilirubin
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International,
Objectives: An increasing number of reports suggest that chemical and physical agents in the environment, introduced and spread by human activity may affect human liver. The present study was conducted to find out pesticide poisoning and its possible effect on liver by assaying PChE, ALT, AST & bilirubin in different occupational groups those are routinely exposed to pesticides. Materials and Methods: Epidemiological studies focusing on exposure to pesticide and its impact of poisoning in liver. A total of 75 adult males were included in the study. Study subjects/Pesticides sprayer were divided into three groups according to their occupations- working in vector control campaign (Group-A), Farmer (Group-B), Control (Group-C). Members of the first two groups are directly involved in pesticide preparation & spraying. Blood samples were collected from the study subjects by venipuncture and serum was separated and tested for PChE, ALT, AST and bilirubin by spectrophotometer.
Results: In the present study the mean (± SD) of serum PChE in the Group-A and Group-B were found 4087.83 ± 1444.23 U/L and 8890.03 ± 2717.75 U/L respectively. In Group-C the mean (± SD) of serum PChE was 10357.92 ± 3106.02 U/L Decrease in PChE activity was observed in the occupationally exposed groups as compared to control group (One-way ANOVA; p < 0.000). The mean (± SD) of serum ALT in the Group-A, Group-B and Group-C was 21.76 ± 5.59 U/L, 13.88 ± 5.23 U/L, and 16.96 ± 6.25 U/L respectively. The mean (± SD) of serum AST in the Group-A and Group-B was 24.96 ± 4.06 U/L and 19.44 ± 4.88 U/L respectively. In Group-C the mean (± SD) of serum AST was 22.24 ± 6.11 U/L. Both the liver enzymes ALT and AST show a negative correlation to the PChE. But the ALT level was much higher in sprayer group and shows significant correlation with PChE (Spearman Correlation Coefficient, rs= -.619**, p < 0.001). The mean (± SD) serum bilirubin in the Group-A, Group-B and Group-C was 0.888 ± 0.422 U/L, 0.5120 ± 0.303 U/L and 0.644 ± 0.335 U/L respectively. Bilirubin level also shows a significant negative correlation with PChE activity in both Group-A and Group-B, rs= -0.560**, and rs= -0.627** respectively.
Conclusions: Epidemiological studies suggest awareness of poisoning of pesticide an environmental factor that may affect biological system. Warning labels of pesticides fail to inform users of long-term health dangers. Research into the impact of pesticides on workers’ health, diagnostic tests would confirm overexposure to most classes of pesticides, reduced activity of PChE in occupationally exposed people was observed. An elevated level of liver enzymes and bilirubin was found also. Continuous and prolonged exposure to pesticides (organophosphorous) resulted in the decreased PChE activity and increased AST, ALT & bilirubin.
- Pesticide poisoning
- serum cholinesterase (PChE)
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