Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International (2456-9119)</strong> is dedicated to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JPRI/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all areas of pharmaceutical Science including pharmaceutical drugs, community pharmacy, hospital pharmacy, clinical pharmacy, compounding pharmacy, consultant pharmacy, internet pharmacy, veterinary pharmacy, nuclear pharmacy, military pharmacy, pharmacy informatics, pharmaceutics, medicinal chemistry, pharmacognosy, pharmacotherapy, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical pharmacology, neuropharmacology, psychopharmacology, pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics, pharmacoepidemiology, toxicology, theoretical pharmacology, posology, pharmacognosy, behavioral pharmacology, environmental pharmacology, medicine development and safety testing, drug legislation and safety.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International) (Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International) Thu, 12 Sep 2019 10:31:10 +0000 OJS 60 Impact of Introducing Clinical Pharmacy Services in A Respiratory Diseases Clinic: A Report from North Cyprus <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The Implementation of Clinical Pharmacy Services (CPS) in hospitals is currently gaining attention in an effort to rationalize drug use in many developing countries. This study aims to introduce and evaluate ward-based CPS in a Respiratory Diseases clinic in North Cyprus and assess its efficacy and physician's perceptions toward the services.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; A prospective interventional study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The study was carried out in the respiratory clinic from 01 December 2013, to 30 January 2014 at Near East University Hospital, in Nicosia, North Cyprus.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Clinical Pharmacy Services (CPS) were introduced and documented over the study period of 60 days in a tertiary university hospital. DTPs and Interventions were documented and classified using DTP classification tool obtained from previous studies, and later evaluated by an independent clinical committee for their feasibility. Physician’s attitudes and perceptions were evaluated before for and after introducing CPS's using a questionnaire tool.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 82.35% of the targeted physician's sample have responded to baseline survey, (n=17) majority (92%) did not have any previous interaction with clinical pharmacists, they generally well perceived and had high expectations to pharmaceutical care services in general. This further enhanced the post-implementation of CPS. 118 interventions were carried during the program, 86.6% accepted and regarded as clinically relevant. Interventions mostly related to cardiovascular agents. Add/ change/stop medications were the most common type of interventions (21%). Most common resultant outcome was to avoid adverse effects or toxicities. The intervention was significantly related to the number of drugs used (r=0,487; p=0,006), the rate of acceptance significantly was higher to services compared to DRP interventions (p&lt;0.005).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The introduction of CPS's lead to clinically relevant and highly accepted optimization of medicine use in different wards and clinics including respiratory diseases clinic in the case of this study, it was relatively well perceived by physicians, but also could be more valued if more optimized and practiced by talented proactive clinical pharmacists within a multidisciplinary team.</p> Abdikarim Mohamed Abdi, Finn Rasmussen, Rumeysa Demirdamar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0000 What is the Relationship among Patients' Position and Intra-abdominal Pressure and Mean Arterial Pressure? <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>: </strong>The prevalence of intra-abdominal hypertension in ICU patients is about 50% and can be affected by changing the position of the patients. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between changing patient positions in bed with intra-abdominal pressure and mean arterial pressure among mechanically ventilated patients in ICU.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><strong>:</strong> This study was a clinical trial conducted on 68 patients admitted in intensive care units of Imam Khomeini hospital of Urmia city, Iran. The patients were selected through convenience sampling based on the inclusion criteria. In this study, the effects of changes in five positions (0, 15, 30, 45, left and right lateral position with 30 degrees) on the mean arterial pressure was evaluated. Statistical tests such as chi square and repeated measures ANOVA were used as well. All analyzes were performed using SPSS 21.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong> In this study, there were 24 men (35.3%) and 44 women (64.7%). The mean age, weight and height of patients were 70.35±16.98 years, 75.76±9.77 kg and 168.82±8.14 cm, respectively. There was no significant difference regarding intra-abdominal pressure by gender (p&lt;0.05). There was a significant difference regarding intra-abdominal pressure between first, second, fourth and fifth measurements (p&lt;0.001). There was a significant difference regarding mean arterial pressure between first, second, third, fourth and fifth measurements (p&lt;0.001). Significant differences were observed between the fifth and fourth mean arterial pressure measurements as well (p&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> According to the results of this study, the changing of patient's body position from supine to higher positions lead to the increase of intra-abdominal pressure.</p> Yusef Haghighi Moghaddam, Elnaz Hosseinnejhad, Mohammad Amin Valizade Hasanloei, Javad Rasouli ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 14 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Metabolism, Toxicity, Detoxification, Occurrence, Intake and Legislations of Fumonisins - A Review <p>Fumonisins are a group of mycotoxins generated by the <em>Fusarium spp</em>. in foods and feeds. More than 15 isomers of Fumonisin are recognized, and the B series of Fumonisins is the primary and referral isomer of Fumonisin. Fumonisin B can cause leukoencephalomalacia in rabbits and horses and porcine pulmonary edema in swine. Fumonisin B is also nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, immunotoxic and carcinogenic. It blocks sphingolipid biosynthesis (and hinders the synthesis of ceramide) by a noticeable resemblance to sphingosine and sphinganine. This paper provides a review of the toxicity, occurrence, and mechanism of carcinogenicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity as well as immunotoxicity of Fumonisins, which are primarily found on a variety of food and feed in Africa, America, Europe, Asia, and Oceania. In this paper, current information on contamination of feeds and foods by Fumonisins around the world is summarized. Because of economic losses induced by Fumonisins and their harmful effects on animal and human health, various procedures to detoxify infected feeds and foods have been illustrated in this review, including biological, physical, and chemical processes. Additionally, we discuss dietary intakes and maximum limits of Fumonisins in some countries.</p> Ahmad Farhadi, Hossein Nowrozi, Reza Kachuei ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0000