Main Article Content
Background: Nickel is commonly used in industry, utensils and also present in cigarette. Over-exposure of nickel is known to cause several health complications including somatic and germinal cell injuries. Garlic (Allium sativum) being a spice has several pharmacological properties. However, its role on the nickel chloride induced somatic and reproductive cells damages are poorly studied in the literature.
Objective: To evaluate the effect of garlic powder on nickel chloride induced somatic and germinal cell damages in male mice.
Methods: Dried garlic clove powder is used in this study in three doses via., 50. 100 and 150 mg/kg, per oral (p.o) for 4-weeks against the nickel chloride [(10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p)] induced somatic and germinal damages. Somatic cells damages were studied using peripheral micronucleus test and germinal cell damages by sperm count and sperm shape abnormalities in male mice. Further, the in-vitro hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity of the garlic was evaluated. Ascorbic acid was tested as a standard drug. The data of the results were analyzed by One-way Anova and Tukey as post hoc test.
Results: The result indicated that nickel chloride enhanced significantly (p<0.001) both somatic and germinal cell damages compared to control animals. The administration of garlic powder at 150 mg/kg significantly (p<0.001) minimized the frequency of micronuclei in the erythrocytes and reduced the spermatozoa anomalies compared to the nickel chloride group. The garlic powder also exhibited significant hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity.
Conclusion: The data indicated that garlic powder at 150 mg/kg reduced the cellular damaging effects of nickel chloride on somatic and germinal cells and the mechanism could be related to the free radical scavenging activity.
Costa M, Davidson TL, Chen H, Ke Q, Zhang P, Yan Y, Huang C, Kluz T. Nickel carcinogenesis: Epigenetics and hypoxia signaling. Mutation Research 2005;592: 79-88.
Beyersmann D, Hartwig A. Carcinogenic metal compounds: Recent insight into molecular and cellular mechanisms, Archives of Toxicology. 2008;82:493-512.
Aaron CS, Sorg R, Zimmer D. The mouse bone marrow micronucleus test: Evaluation of 21 drug candidates. Mutation Research. 1989;223:129–140.
Sengupta P. Environmental and occupa-tional exposure of metals and their role in male reproductive functions. Drug and Chemical Toxicology. 2012;36:353–368.
Panchawat S, Rathore KS, Sisodia SS. A review on herbal antioxidants. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology and Research. 2010;2:232-239.
Glade MJ. Food, nutrition, and the prevention of cancer: A global perspective. American Institute for Cancer. Nutrition. 1999;15:523-526.
Bajpai M, Pande A, Tewari SK, Prakash D. Phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of some food and medicinal plants. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition. 2005;56:287-291.
Lau BH. Suppression of LDL oxidation by garlic compounds is a possible mechanism of cardiovascular health benefit. Nutrition. 2006;136:765-768.
Mohanty PK. Cytotoxic effect of nickel chloride on the somatic chromosomes of Swiss albino mice musmusculus. Current Sciences. 1987;56:1154-1157.
Riad NHA, Taha HA, Mahmoud YI. Effects of garlic on albino mice experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni: A parasitological and ultra-structural study. Tropical Biomedicine. 2009;26:40-50.
Kadi IE, Dahdouh F. Vitamin C pretreatment protects from nickel-induced acute nephrotoxicity in mice. Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju. 2016;67: 210-215.
Hayashi M, Morita T, Kodama Y, Sofuni T, Ishidate M. The micronucleus assay with mouse peripheral blood reticulocytes using acridine orange-coated slides. Mutation Research. 1990;245;245-249.
Rabbani SI, Devi K, Khanam S. Effect of thiazolidinediones on the erythropoeitic and germinal cells in the male wistar rats. Clinical Medicine: Oncology. 2008;2:423-429.
D'Souza UJ. Effect of tamoxifen on spermatogenesis and tubular morphology in rats. Asian Journal of Andrology. 2004; 6:223-6.
Wyrobek AJ, Gordon LA, Burkhart JG, et al. An evaluation of the mouse sperm morphology test and other sperm tests in nonhuman mammals: A report of the US environmental protection agency Gene-Tox program. Mutation Research. 1983; 115:1-72.
Ruch RJ, Cheng SJ, Klaunig JE. Prevention of cytotoxicity and inhibition of intercellular communication by antioxidant catechins isolated from Chinese green tea. Carcinogenesis. 1989;10:1003- 1008.
Coogan TP, Latta DM, Snow ET, Costa M. Toxicity and carcinogencity of nickel compounds. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 1989;19(4):341–84.
Lee KW, Bode AM, Dong Z. Molecular targets of phytochemicals for cancer prevention. Nature Review Cancer. 2011; 11:211-218.
Chung LY. The antioxidant properties of garlic compounds: allyl cysteine, alliin, allicin, and allyl disulfide. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2006;9:205-13.