Main Article Content
Back pain and back problems are one of the most common causes for referring patients to health care specialists that have a large economic cost. Therefore, it is considered necessary to find effective treatment for these patients. For the treatment of back pain, various methods as complementary and alternative medicine and industrial drugs are used; that the efficiency of these medicine methods for treatment of back pain is not without dispute. From a variety of traditional methods for treatment of back pain can be cited: the use of medicinal herbs for example: Aloe vera (Family: Liliaceous), Chamomile (Family: Asteraceae), Rosemary (Family: Peppermint), Ginger (Family: Zingiberaceae), Colchicum (Family: Colchicaceae), Curcuma (Family: Zingiberaceae), and use of Medicinal Methods for example: cupping/hijamat, leech therapy, bloodletting, and gams; therefore, this review was conducted in order to evaluate the effectiveness of these methods which used in traditional remedies for the betterment of back pain.
Metcalfe A, Williams J, McChesney J, Patten SB, Jetté N. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by those with a chronic disease and the general population-results of a national population based survey. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2010;10(1):58.
Frass M, Strassl RP, Friehs H, Müllner M, Kundi M, Kaye AD. Use and acceptance of complementary and alternative medicine among the general population and medical personnel: A systematic review. The Ochsner Journal. 2012;12(1):45-56.
MA A. Tibbe akbari. IRAN.Qom: mossesseyeh Ehyaieh tebbe Tabiea; 2008.
Hart LG, Deyo RA, Cherkin DC. Physician office visits for low back pain. Frequency, clinical evaluation, and treatment patterns from a US national survey. Spine. 1995; 20(1):11-9.
Walsh K, Cruddas M, Coggon D. Low back pain in eight areas of Britain. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 1992; 46(3):227-30.
Maetzel A, Li L. The economic burden of low back pain: a review of studies published between 1996 and 2001. Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology. 2002;16(1):23-30.
Raspe H. Themenheft 53" Rückenschmerzen"; 2012.
Klauber J, Günster C, Gerste B, Robra B-P, Schmacke N. Versorgungs-Report 2013/2014: Schwerpunkt: Depression: Schattauer Verlag; 2014.
Rezaeizadeh H, Alizadeh M, Naseri M, Ardakani M. The Traditional Iranian Medicine Point of View on Health and. Iranian J Publ Health. 2009;38(1):169-72.
Naseri M, Rezaeiazdeh H, Taheripanah T, Naseri V. Temperament theory in the iranian traditional medicine and variation in therapeutic responsiveness, based on pharmacogenetics. Journal of Islamic and Iranian traditional medicine. 2010;1(3):237-42.
AAH IS. Al-Qanon fi al-Tibb (The Canon of Medicine). 1 ed. 1, editor. Beirut: Alaalami Institute; 2005.
Kharazmshahi JSZ. In: MR M, editor. Tehran, Iran: The Academy of Medical Sciences; 2001.
Nozad A, Naseri M, Safari MB, Al Ahadi AA, Ghaffari F. Food Reduction in Avicenna’s View and Related Principles in Classical Medicine. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2016;18(6):e25760.
Nematolahei Quhistani H. The science of traditional medicine in the prevention and treatment of diseases, medicinal plants and herbal medicines. Tehran: Center for sustainable development of Farzin Science and Technology; 2015.
Nandal U, Bhardwaj R. Aloe vera: A valuable wonder plant for food, medicine and cosmetic use-a review. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 2012;13(1):59-67.
Park YI, Jo TH. Perspective of industrial application of Aloe vera. New Perspectives on Aloe: Springer; 2006:191-200.
Ahlawat KS, Khatkar BS. Processing, food applications and safety of aloe vera products: A review. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2011;48(5):525-33.
Hajhashemi V, Ghannadi A, Heidari A. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of Aloe littoralis in rats. Research in pharmaceutical sciences. 2012;7(2):73-78.
Hussain J, Khan AL, ur Rehman N, Hamayun M, Shinwari ZK, Ullah W, et al. Assessment of herbal products and their composite medicinal plants through proximate and micronutrients analysis. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2009;3(12):1072-7.
Pandey A, Singh S. Aloe Vera: A Systematic Review of its Industrial and Ethno-Medicinal Efficacy. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research & Allied Sciences. 2016;5(1),21-33.
Gholami Z, Amraei M. Antinociceptive effects of matricaria chamomilla L. ethanolic extract in mice. Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences. 2014; 21(7):312-7.
Hameed I, Mohammad G, Kamal S. A Review: Uses and Pharmacological Activity of Matricaria Chamomilla; 2018.
Bardoni R, Tawfik VL, Wang D, François A, Solorzano C, Shuster SA, et al. Delta Opioid Receptors Presynaptically Regulate Cutaneous Mechanosensory Neuron Input to the Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn. Neuron. 2014;81(6):1312-27.
Asgharzade S, Rabiei Z, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Effects of Matricaria chamomilla extract on motor coordination impairment induced by scopolamine in rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2015; 5(10):829-33.
Solhi H, Salehi B, Alimoradian A, Pazouki S, Taghizadeh M, Saleh AM, et al. Beneficial Effects of Rosmarinus Officinalis for Treatment of Opium Withdrawal Syndrome during Addiction Treatment Programs: A Clinical Trial. Addiction & Health. 2013;5(3-4):90-4.
N B. Rosemary Extract. Herb for Health. Leander International Pet Foods; 2010.
Ghannadi A, Karimzadeh H, Tavakoli N, Darafsh M, Ramezanloo P. Efficacy of a Combined Rosemary and Lavender Topical Ointment in the Treatment of Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee. Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 2013;15(6):29-33.
AR D, MK C. Effects of a ginger extract on knee pain in patients with osteoarthritis. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 2001;44(11):2531-8.
Antman EM, Bennett JS, Daugherty A, Furberg C, Roberts H, Taubert KA. Use of Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs. An Update for Clinicians: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. 2007;115(12):1634-42.
Zhang GF, Yang ZB, Wang Y, Yang WR, Jiang SZ, Gai GS. Effects of ginger root (Zingiber officinale) processed to different particle sizes on growth performance, antioxidant status, and serum metabolites of broiler chickens. Poultry Science. 2009; 88(10):2159-66.
Grzanna R, Lindmark L, Frondoza CG. Ginger - - an herbal medicinal product with broad anti-inflammatory actions. J Med Food. 2005;8(2):125-32.
Lantz RC, Chen GJ, Sarihan M, Sólyom AM, Jolad SD, Timmermann BN. The effect of extracts from ginger rhizome on inflammatory mediator production. Phytomedicine. 2007;14(2-3):123-8.
Akram M, Alam O, Usmanghani K, Naveed A, Asif M. Colchicum autumnale: A review. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research in pharmaceutical sciences. 2012;6(8): 1489-1491.
EL, KA, Christensen LP, SB C. An Antiinflammatory Galactolipid from Rose Hip (Rosa canina) That Inhibits Chemotaxis of Human Peripheral Blood Neutrophils in Vitro. J Nat Prod. 2003; 66(7):994-5.
Rodnan GP, Benedek TG. The early history of antirheumatic drugs. Arthritis Rheum. 1970;13(2):145-65.
Aggarwal BB, Shishodia S. Molecular targets of dietary agents for prevention and therapy of cancer". Biochem Pharmacol. 2006;71(10):1397-421.
Kuptniratsaikul V, Thanakhumtorn S, Chinswangwatanakul P, Wattanamongkonsil L, Thamlikitkul V. Efficacy and safety of Curcuma domestica extracts in patients with knee osteoarthriti. J Altern Complement Med. 2009;15(8): 891-7.
Ramadan G, Al-Kahtani MA, El-Sayed WM. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of Curcuma longa (turmeric) versus Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis. Inflammation. 2011;34(4):291-301.
Marcus Webb, ND D. Curcumin Reduces Degenerative Disc Disease Pain. Natural Medicine Journal. 2015;7:6.
Chirali IZ, J. S, . Cupping therapy: traditional Chinese Medicine. Philadelphia: Elsevier. 1999;3.
Bamfarahnak H, Azizi A, Noorafshan A, Mohagheghzadeh A. A tale of Persian cupping therapy: 1001 potential applications and avenues for research. Forschende Komplementarmedizin (2006). 2014;21(1):42-7.
Huber R, Emerich M, Braeunig M. Cupping - is it reproducible? Experiments about factors determining the vacuum. Complementary therapies in medicine. 2011;19(2):78-83.
Whitaker IS, Rao J, Izadi D, Butler PE. Historical Article: Hirudo medicinalis: ancient origins of, and trends in the use of medicinal leeches throughout history. The British journal of oral & maxillofacial surgery. 2004;42(2):133-7.
Al-Rubaye KQA. The clinical and histological skin changes after the cupping therapy (Al-Hijamah); 2012.
Farhadi K, Schwebel DC, Saeb M, Choubsaz M, Mohammadi R, Ahmadi A. The effectiveness of wet-cupping for nonspecific low back pain in Iran: a randomized controlled trial. Complementary therapies in medicine. 2009;17(1):9-15.
Abdualkader AM, Ghawi AM, Alaama M, Awang M, Merzouk A. Leech Therapeutic Applications. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013;75(2):127-37.
Geneva. Chronic rheumatic conditions. Switzerland: World health organization; 2005.
Michalsen A, Klotz S, Ludtke R, Moebus S, Spahn G, Dobos GJ. Effectiveness of leech therapy in osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2003;139(9):724-30.
Scott K. Is hirudin a potential therapeutic agent for arthritis? Annals of the rheumatic diseases. 2002;61(6):561.
Ashtiyani SC, Zarei A, Elahipour M. Innovations and Discoveries of Jorjani in Medicine. Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine. 2009;2:16.
Hyson JM. Leech therapy: A history. Journal of The History of Dentistry. 2005; 53(1):25-7.
Khalili M, Shoja M, Ghabili K, Khodadoust K, E. Parapari S. Leech Therapy in Iranian Traditional Medicine. 2014;41-6.
Parapia LA. History of bloodletting by phlebotomy. British Journal Of Haematology. 2008;143(4):490-5.
Bahrami taghanaki HR, Yousefi M, Mehri MR, Hoseinzadeh HR, Jafarinejad M, M.R. Noras MR. A comparative study of Iranian and Chinese medicine massages therapy. Journal of Islamic and Iranian Traditional Medicine. 2016;7(2):173-81.
Jaladat A. Ghamz therapy in Persian Medicine and its comparison with Reflexo Zone therapy.2013;395-406.
Liu SL, Qi W, Li H, Wang YF, Yang XF, Li ZM, et al. Recent advances in massage therapy--a review. European review for medical and pharmacological sciences. 2015;19(20):3843-9.
Parvizi MM, Nimrouzi M, Lankarani KB, Morteza S, Alorizi E, Hajimonfarednejad M. Health Recommendations for the Elderly in the Viewpoint of Traditional Persian Medicine. Health. 2017;18:9.
Ghani A. Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh: Chemical constituents and uses. Dhaka: Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. 2003;16.
Cheap, Mhmdakbr, . fun Alqlvb (described Qanvnchh medicine). 1333 AH. BC.
Khorasani Aghili MH. Summary Alhkmh. Qom,Iran; 2006.
Canada S. Alternative Health Care Practitioners; 2001.
Vickers A, Zollman C. ABC of complementary medicine: Massage therapies. BMJ: British Medical Journal. 1999;319(7219):1254.
Furlan AD, Imamura M, Dryden T, Irvin E. Massage for low back pain: an updated systematic review within the framework of the Cochrane Back Review Group. Spine. 2009;34(16):1669-84.