Synthesis of Morphine Loaded Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles (HAPs) and Determination of Genotoxic Effect for Using Pain Management

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Hava Kölemek
İbrahim Bulduk
Yavuz Ergün
Muhsin Konuk
S. Elif Korcan
Recep Liman
Funda Karabağ Çoban


Morphine is used as a standard analgesic for intensive pain relief. It relieves acute and chronic pain by acting directly on the central nervous system and to treat myocardial infarction and shortness of breath. However, the use of morphine for the alleviation of chronic pain is controversial because of the its adverse side effects. The overall success of this medicine in chronic therapy is due to the long-term activity of the drug at a reasonable concentration. Nanoparticle-based carriers have emerged as a new class of drug delivery systems that can overcome traditional drug side-effect limitations by reducing toxicity to a minimum. In this study, a morphine-loaded HAPs drug delivery system was investigated. Fouirer Transform Infrared Spektrofotometre (FTIR) analysis was used to characterize typical functional groups found in the chemical composition of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles (HAPs) and morphine loaded HAPs (HAP+M). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyzes were performed to examine the size, morphology, and porosity of morphine loaded HAPs. Characterization analysis showed that HAP nanoparticles were loaded with morphine. The effects of pH on release of morphine-loaded HAPs was determined. The release time of the entrapped morphine in the nanoparticle increased in all conditions, thus increasing the morphine time in the human body. Thus, patients will have to take less morphine. In addition, it was investigated whether the morphine loaded HAP cell produced oxidative stress and genotoxic effect on DNA. Findings presented in this paper suggested that morphine-loaded HAPs have a promising future as a nanocarrier for pain treatment.

Delivery system, HAPs, morphine, pain therapy

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How to Cite
Kölemek, H., Bulduk, İbrahim, Ergün, Y., Konuk, M., Korcan, S. E., Liman, R., & Çoban, F. (2019). Synthesis of Morphine Loaded Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles (HAPs) and Determination of Genotoxic Effect for Using Pain Management. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 25(6), 1-13.
Original Research Article